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Management of Vaginitis - Article
ABSTRACT: Common infectious forms of vaginitis include bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, and trichomoniasis. Vaginitis also can occur because of atrophic changes. Bacterial vaginosis is caused by proliferation of Gardnerella vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, and anaerobes. The diagnosis is based primarily on the Amsel criteria (milky discharge, pH greater than 4.5, positive whiff test, clue cells in a wet-mount preparation). The standard treatment is oral metronidazole in a dosage of 500 mg twice daily for seven days. Vulvovaginal candidiasis can be difficult to diagnose because characteristic signs and symptoms (thick, white discharge, dysuria, vulvovaginal pruritus and swelling) are not specific for the infection. Diagnosis should rely on microscopic examination of a sample from the lateral vaginal wall (10 to 20 percent potassium hydroxide preparation). Cultures are helpful in women with recurrent or complicated vulvovaginal candidiasis, because species other than Candida albicans (e.g., Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis) may be present. Topical azole and oral fluconazole are equally efficacious in the management of uncomplicated vulvovaginal candidiasis, but a more extensive regimen may be required for complicated infections. Trichomoniasis may cause a foul-smelling, frothy discharge and, in most affected women, vaginal inflammatory changes. Culture and DNA probe testing are useful in diagnosing the infection; examinations of wet-mount preparations have a high false-negative rate. The standard treatment for trichomoniasis is a single 2-g oral dose of metronidazole. Atrophic vaginitis results from estrogen deficiency. Treatment with topical estrogen is effective.
ABSTRACT: Up to 40 percent of postmenopausal women have symptoms of atrophic vaginitis. Because the condition is attributable to estrogen deficiency, it may occur in premenopausal women who take antiestrogenic medications or who have medical or surgical conditions that result in decreased levels of estrogen. The thinned endometrium and increased vaginal pH level induced by estrogen deficiency predispose the vagina and urinary tract to infection and mechanical weakness. The earliest symptoms are decreased vaginal lubrication, followed by other vaginal and urinary symptoms that may be exacerbated by superimposed infection. Once other causes of symptoms have been eliminated, treatment usually depends on estrogen replacement. Estrogen replacement therapy may be provided systemically or locally, but the dosage and delivery method must be individualized. Vaginal moisturizers and lubricants, and participation in coitus may also be beneficial in the treatment of women with atrophic vaginitis.
Diagnosis of Vaginitis - Article
ABSTRACT: Vaginitis is the most common gynecologic diagnosis in the primary care setting. In approximately 90 percent of affected women, this condition occurs secondary to bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis or trichomoniasis. Vaginitis develops when the vaginal flora has been altered by introduction of a pathogen or by changes in the vaginal environment that allow pathogens to proliferate. The evaluation of vaginitis requires a directed history and physical examination, with focus on the site of involvement and the characteristics of the vaginal discharge. The laboratory evaluation includes microscopic examination of a saline wet-mount preparation and a potassium hydroxide preparation, a litmus test for the pH of vaginal secretions and a "whiff" test. Metronidazole is the primary treatment for bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis. Topical antifungal agents are the first-line treatments for candidal vaginitis.