ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Osteoporosis in Men - Article
ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis in men is now recognized as an increasingly important public health issue. About 30 percent of hip fractures occur in men, and one in eight men older than 50 years will have an osteoporotic fracture. Because of their greater peak bone mass, men usually present with hip, vertebral body, or distal wrist fractures 10 years later than women. Hip fractures in men, however, result in a 31 percent mortality rate at one year after fracture versus a rate of 17 percent in women. Major risk factors for osteoporosis in men are glucocorticoid use for longer than six months, osteopenia seen on plain radiographs, a history of nontraumatic fracture, hypogonadism, and advancing age. Bisphosphonates and teriparatide (recombinant parathyhroid hormone) have recently been approved for use in men and should be considered along with supplemental calcium and vitamin D. Increased awareness by physicians of risk factors for male osteoporosis--and early diagnosis and treatment--are needed to decrease the morbidity and mortality resulting from osteoporotic fractures.
A Practical Approach to Hypercalcemia - Article
ABSTRACT: Hypercalcemia is a disorder commonly encountered by primary care physicians. The diagnosis often is made incidentally in asymptomatic patients. Clinical manifestations affect the neuromuscular, gastrointestinal, renal, skeletal, and cardiovascular systems. The most common causes of hypercalcemia are primary hyperparathyroidism and malignancy. Some other important causes of hypercalcemia are medications and familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia. An initial diagnostic work-up should include measurement of intact parathyroid hormone, and any medications that are likely to be causative should be discontinued. Parathyroid hormone is suppressed in malignancy-associated hypercalcemia and elevated in primary hyperparathyroidism. It is essential to exclude other causes before considering parathyroid surgery, and patients should be referred for parathyroidectomy only if they meet certain criteria. Many patients with primary hyperparathyroidism have a benign course and do not need surgery. Hypercalcemic crisis is a life-threatening emergency. Aggressive intravenous rehydration is the mainstay of management in severe hypercalcemia, and antiresorptive agents, such as calcitonin and bisphosphonates, frequently can alleviate the clinical manifestations of hypercalcemic disorders.
ABSTRACT: Vitamin D deficiency among hospitalized patients may be more widespread than realized. Vague musculoskeletal complaints in these chronically ill patients may be attributed to multiple underlying disease processes rather than a deficiency in vitamin D. However, the failure to diagnose an underlying deficiency places the patient at risk for continued pain, weakness, secondary hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia, and fractures. The causes of hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia in the chronically ill patient are many, and the patient may respond to simple replacement therapy. Elderly hospitalized patients with ionized hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia, with or without an elevated parathyroid hormone level, are most likely deficient in vitamin D. Initiating treatment during hospitalization is reasonable once the diagnosis has been confirmed by finding a low 25-hydroxyvitamin D level. Treatment with high doses of vitamin D is safe. Unfortunately, some hospital formularies continue to provide multivitamin supplements that contain less vitamin D than currently is recommended.
Rickets: Not a Disease of the Past - Article
ABSTRACT: Rickets develops when growing bones fail to mineralize. In most cases, the diagnosis is established with a thorough history and physical examination and confirmed by laboratory evaluation. Nutritional rickets can be caused by inadequate intake of nutrients (vitamin D in particular); however, it is not uncommon in dark-skinned children who have limited sun exposure and in infants who are breastfed exclusively. Vitamin D-dependent rickets, type I results from abnormalities in the gene coding for 25(OH)D3-1-alpha-hydroxylase, and type II results from defective vitamin D receptors. The vitamin D-resistant types are familial hypophosphatemic rickets and hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria. Other causes of rickets include renal disease, medications, and malabsorption syndromes. Nutritional rickets is treated by replacing the deficient nutrient. Mothers who breastfeed exclusively need to be informed of the recommendation to give their infants vitamin D supplements beginning in the first two months of life to prevent nutritional rickets. Vitamin D-dependent rickets, type I is treated with vitamin D; management of type II is more challenging. Familial hypophosphatemic rickets is treated with phosphorus and vitamin D, whereas hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria is treated with phosphorus alone. Families with inherited rickets may seek genetic counseling. The aim of early diagnosis and treatment is to resolve biochemical derangements and prevent complications such as severe deformities that may require surgical intervention.
ABSTRACT: Menopause is the permanent cessation of menstruation resulting from the loss of ovarian and follicular activity. It usually occurs when women reach their early 50s. Vasomotor symptoms and vaginal dryness are frequently reported during menopause. Estrogen is the most effective treatment for management of hot flashes and night sweats. Local estrogen is preferred for vulvovaginal symptoms because of its excellent therapeutic response. Bone mineral density screening should be performed in all women older than 65 years, and should begin sooner in women with additional risk factors for osteoporotic fractures. Adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D should be encouraged for all postmenopausal women to reduce bone loss. Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death in women. Postmenopausal women should be counseled regarding lifestyle modification, including smoking cessation and regular physical activity. All women should receive periodic measurement of blood pressure and lipids. Appropriate pharmacotherapy should be initiated when indicated. Women should receive breast cancer screening every one to two years beginning at age 40, as well as colorectal cancer screening beginning at age 50. Women younger than 65 years who are sexually active and have a cervix should receive routine cervical cancer screening with Papanicolaou smear. Recommended immunizations for menopausal women include an annual influenza vaccine, a tetanus and diphtheria toxoid booster every 10 years, and a one-time pneumococcal vaccine after age 65 years.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Osteoporosis - Article
ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis affects approximately 8 million women and 2 million men in the United States. The associated fractures are a common and preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in up to 50 percent of older women. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry to screen all women 65 years and older and women 60 to 64 years of age who have increased fracture risk. Some organizations recommend considering screening in all men 70 years and older. For persons with osteoporosis diagnosed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry or previous fragility fracture, effective first-line treatment consists of fall prevention, adequate intake of calcium (at least 1,200 mg per day) and vitamin D (at least 700 to 800 IU per day), and treatment with a bisphosphonate. Raloxifene, calcitonin, teriparatide, or hormone therapy maybe considered for certain subsets of patients.
Vitamin D Deficiency--The Once and Present Epidemic - Editorials
ABSTRACT: Vitamin D deficiency affects persons of all ages. Common manifestations of vitamin D deficiency are symmetric low back pain, proximal muscle weakness, muscle aches, and throbbing bone pain elicited with pressure over the sternum or tibia. A 25-hydroxyvitamin D level should be obtained in patients with suspected vitamin D deficiency. Deficiency is defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of less than 20 ng per mL (50 nmol per L), and insufficiency is defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of 20 to 30 ng per mL (50 to 75 nmol per L). The goal of treatment is to normalize vitamin D levels to relieve symptoms and decrease the risk of fractures, falls, and other adverse health outcomes. To prevent vitamin D deficiency, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that infants and children receive at least 400 IU per day from diet and supplements. Evidence shows that vitamin D supplementation of at least 700 to 800 IU per day reduces fracture and fall rates in adults. In persons with vitamin D deficiency, treatment may include oral ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) at 50,000 IU per week for eight weeks. After vitamin D levels normalize, experts recommend maintenance dosages of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) at 800 to 1,000 IU per day from dietary and supplemental sources.
Vitamin D in Children: The Right Dose of Evidence - Editorials