ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly - Editorials
Routine Vitamin Supplementation to Prevent Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease: Recommendations and Rationale - U.S. Preventive Services Task Force
Routine Vitamin Supplementation to Prevent Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease - Putting Prevention into Practice
Efficacy of Antioxidants in GI Cancer Prevention - Cochrane for Clinicians
ABSTRACT: Vitamin D deficiency affects persons of all ages. Common manifestations of vitamin D deficiency are symmetric low back pain, proximal muscle weakness, muscle aches, and throbbing bone pain elicited with pressure over the sternum or tibia. A 25-hydroxyvitamin D level should be obtained in patients with suspected vitamin D deficiency. Deficiency is defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of less than 20 ng per mL (50 nmol per L), and insufficiency is defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of 20 to 30 ng per mL (50 to 75 nmol per L). The goal of treatment is to normalize vitamin D levels to relieve symptoms and decrease the risk of fractures, falls, and other adverse health outcomes. To prevent vitamin D deficiency, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that infants and children receive at least 400 IU per day from diet and supplements. Evidence shows that vitamin D supplementation of at least 700 to 800 IU per day reduces fracture and fall rates in adults. In persons with vitamin D deficiency, treatment may include oral ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) at 50,000 IU per week for eight weeks. After vitamin D levels normalize, experts recommend maintenance dosages of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) at 800 to 1,000 IU per day from dietary and supplemental sources.
Vitamin D in Children: The Right Dose of Evidence - Editorials
ABSTRACT: Lowering cholesterol can reduce the incidence of coronary heart disease. Treating hypertension reduces overall mortality and is most effective in reducing the risk of coronary heart disease in older patients. Smoking cessation reduces the level of risk to that of nonsmokers within about three years of cessation. Aspirin is likely to be an effective means of primary prevention, but a group in whom treatment is appropriate has yet to be defined. Evidence that supplementation with vitamin A or C reduces the risk of coronary heart disease is inadequate; the data for use of vitamin E are inconclusive. Epidemiologic evidence is sufficient to recommend that most persons increase their levels of physical activity. Lowering homocysteine levels through increased folate intake is a promising but unproven primary prevention strategy. Hormone replacement therapy was associated with reduced incidence of coronary heart disease in epidemiologic studies but was not effective in a secondary prevention trial.
ABSTRACT: Clinical use of antioxidant vitamin supplementation may help to prevent coronary heart disease (CHD). Epidemiologic studies find lower CHD morbidity and mortality in persons who consume larger quantities of antioxidants in foods or supplements. Clinical trials indicate that supplementation with certain nutrients is beneficial in reducing the incidence of CHD events. Recent studies show that supplementation with antioxidant vitamins E and C have benefits in CHD prevention; however, supplementation with beta-carotene may have deleterious effects and is not recommended. Current evidence suggests that patients with CHD would probably benefit from taking vitamin E in a dosage of 400 IU per day and vitamin C in a dosage of 500 to 1,000 mg per day. Clinicians may also want to consider vitamin supplementation for CHD prevention in high-risk patients. Folate lowers elevated homocysteine levels, but evidence for routine supplemental use does not yet exist. Other nutritional supplements are currently under investigation.
The Value of Antioxidant Vitamin Supplements - Editorials