ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
ABSTRACT: Diagnosis of upper extremity injuries depends on knowledge of basic anatomy and biomechanics of the hand and wrist. The wrist is composed of two rows of carpal bones. Flexor and extensor tendons cross the wrist to allow function of the hand and digits. The ulnar, median, and radial nerves provide innervation of the hand and wrist. A systematic primary and secondary examination of the hand and wrist includes assessment of active and passive range of motion of the wrist and digits, and dynamic stability testing. The most commonly fractured bone of the wrist is the scaphoid, and the most common ligamentous instability involves the scaphoid and lunate.
ABSTRACT: Primary care physicians must be able to recognize wrist and hand injuries that require immediate attention. A complete history and physical examination, including assessment of distal limb function, are essential. Hemorrhage control is necessary in patients with vessel lacerations and amputations. Amputations require an understanding of the indications and contraindications in the management of the amputated limb. High-pressure injection injuries and compartment syndromes require a high index of suspicion for early recognition. Infectious entities include "fight bite," open fractures, purulent tenosynovitis, animal bites, and retained foreign bodies. Tendon disruptions should be recognized early to optimize management.
ABSTRACT: A detailed history alone may lead to a specific diagnosis in approximately 70 percent of patients who have wrist pain. Patients who present with spontaneous onset of wrist pain, who have a vague or distant history of trauma, or whose activities consist of repetitive loading could be suffering from a carpal bone nonunion or from avascular necrosis. The hand and wrist can be palpated to localize tenderness to a specific anatomic structure. Special tests can help support specific diagnoses (e.g., Finkelstein's test, the grind test, the lunotriquetral shear test, McMurray's test, the supination lift test, Watson's test). When radiography is indicated, the posterior-anterior and lateral views are essential to evaluate the bony architecture and alignment, the width and symmetry of the joint spaces, and the soft tissues. When the diagnosis remains unclear, or when the clinical course does not improve with conservative measures, further imaging modalities are indicated, including ultrasonography, technetium bone scan, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. If all studies are negative and clinically significant wrist pain continues, the patient may need to be referred to a specialist for further evaluation, which may include cineroentgenography, diagnostic arthrography, or arthroscopy.
ABSTRACT: Family physicians often are required to evaluate patients who present with acute skeletal trauma. The first of this two-part series discusses the features and evaluation of some commonly missed fractures and dislocations of the upper limb, excluding the hand. Dislocations of the sternoclavicular joint are infrequent and often missed. Clavicular fractures in adults usually are not hard to diagnose. Acromioclavicular joint dislocations represent about 10 percent of all dislocation injuries to the shoulder girdle. Forty percent of all dislocations occur at the glenohumeral joint. Scapular fractures are often a result of significant force. Multiple views should be obtained in adults with a suspected fracture of the elbow. Complications in fractures of the wrist are strongly related to the location of the fracture.
Unusual Wrist Bruise - Photo Quiz