Items in AFP with MESH term: Biological Markers

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Ectopic Pregnancy - Article

ABSTRACT: Ectopic pregnancy occurs at a rate of 19.7 cases per 1,000 pregnancies in North America and is a leading cause of maternal mortality in the first trimester. Greater awareness of risk factors and improved technology (biochemical markers and ultrasonography) allow ectopic pregnancy to be identified before the development of life-threatening events. The evaluation may include a combination of determination of urine and serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels, serum progesterone levels, ultrasonography, culdocentesis and laparoscopy. Key to the diagnosis is determination of the presence or absence of an intrauterine gestational sac correlated with quantitative serum beta-subunit hCG (beta-hCG) levels. An ectopic pregnancy should be suspected if transvaginal ultrasonography shows no intrauterine gestational sac when the beta-hCG level is higher than 1,500 mlU per mL (1,500 IU per L). If the beta-hCG level plateaus or fails to double in 48 hours and the ultrasound examination fails to identify an intrauterine gestational sac, uterine curettage may determine the presence or absence of chorionic villi. Although past treatment consisted of an open laparotomy and salpingectomy, current laparoscopic techniques for unruptured ectopic pregnancy emphasize tubal preservation. Other treatment options include the use of methotrexate therapy for small, unruptured ectopic pregnancies in hemodynamically stable patients. Expectant management may have a role when beta-hCG levels are low and declining.


ACC/AHA Guidelines on the Management of Acute Myocardial Infarction - Practice Guidelines


Down Syndrome: Prenatal Risk Assessment and Diagnosis - Article

ABSTRACT: Down syndrome (trisomy 21) is the most commonly recognized genetic cause of mental retardation. The risk of trisomy 21 is directly related to maternal age. All forms of prenatal testing for Down syndrome must be voluntary. A nondirective approach should be used when presenting patients with options for prenatal screening and diagnostic testing. Patients who will be 35 years or older on their due date should be offered chorionic villus sampling or second-trimester amniocentesis. Women younger than 35 years should be offered maternal serum screening at 16 to 18 weeks of gestation. The maternal serum markers used to screen for trisomy 21 are alpha-fetoprotein, unconjugated estriol and human chorionic gonadotropin. The use of ultrasound to estimate gestational age improves the sensitivity and specificity of maternal serum screening.


Brain Natriuretic Peptide for Ruling Out Heart Failure - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries


Chronic Kidney Disease: Detection and Evaluation - Article

ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease affects an estimated 27 million adults in the United States, and is associated with significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. Patients should be assessed annually to determine whether they are at increased risk of developing chronic kidney disease based on clinical and sociodemographic factors. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and older age are the primary risk factors that warrant screening. Other risk factors include cardiovascular disease, family history of chronic kidney disease, and ethnic and racial minority status. Serum creatinine levels can be used to estimate the glomerular filtration rate, and spot urine testing can detect proteinuria. After the diagnosis of chronic kidney disease is made, staging based on estimated glomerular filtration rate determines prognosis, evaluation, and management. Further evaluation should focus on the specific type of kidney disease and on identifying complications related to the disease stage. Patients should be assessed for risk factors leading to the further loss of kidney function and cardiovascular disease. Patients with estimated glomerular filtration rates less than 30 mL per minute per 1.73 m2, significant proteinuria, or rapid loss of kidney function should be referred to a nephrologist for further evaluation and management.


Anaphylaxis: Recognition and Management - Article

ABSTRACT: Anaphylaxis is a severe, life-threatening, systemic allergic reaction that is almost always unanticipated and may lead to death by airway obstruction or vascular collapse. Anaphylaxis occurs as the result of an allergen response, usually immunoglobulin E–mediated, which leads to mast cell and basophil activation and a combination of dermatologic, respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and neurologic symptoms. Dermatologic and respiratory symptoms are most common, occurring in 90 and 70 percent of episodes, respectively. The three most common triggers are food, insect stings, and medications. The diagnosis of anaphylaxis is typically made when symptoms occur within one hour of exposure to a specific antigen. Confirmatory testing using serum histamine and tryptase levels is difficult, because blood samples must be drawn with strict time considerations. Allergen skin testing and in vitro assay for serum immunoglobulin E of specific allergens do not reliably predict who will develop anaphylaxis. Administration of intramuscular epinephrine at the onset of anaphylaxis, before respiratory failure or cardiovascular compromise, is essential. Histamine H1 receptor antagonists and corticosteroids may be useful adjuncts. All patients at risk of recurrent anaphylaxis should be educated about the appropriate use of prescription epinephrine autoinjectors.


Should the Target A1C Level Be Less Than 7 Percent? Yes: This Should Be the Target for Most Patients - Editorials


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