ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Preventing Postpartum Weight Retention - Editorials
Are Low-Fat Diets Better than Other Weight-Reducing Diets in Achieving Long-Term Weight Loss? - Cochrane for Clinicians
Low-Carbohydrate Dieting - Editorials
Exercise is an Effective Intervention in Overweight and Obese Patients - Cochrane for Clinicians
ABSTRACT: Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States. In patients who have had a myocardial infarction or revascularization procedure, secondary prevention of coronary artery disease by comprehensive risk factor modification reduces mortality, decreases subsequent cardiac events, and improves quality of life. Options for secondary prevention include medical therapy and surgical revascularization in the form of coronary artery bypass grafting or percutaneous coronary intervention. Medical therapy focuses on comprehensive risk factor modification. Therapeutic lifestyle changes (including weight management, physical activity, tobacco cessation, and dietary modification) improve cardiac risk factors and are universally recommended by evidence-based guidelines. Treatment of hypertension and dyslipidemia reduces morbidity and mortality. Recommendations for persons with diabetes mellitus generally encourage glucose control, but current evidence has not shown reductions in mortality with intensive glucose management. Aspirin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and beta blockers reduce recurrent cardiac events in patients after myocardial infarction. Surgical revascularization by coronary artery bypass grafting is recommended for those with significant left main coronary artery stenosis, significant stenosis of the proximal left anterior descending artery, multivessel coronary disease, or disabling angina. Percutaneous coronary intervention may be considered in select patients with objective evidence of ischemia demonstrated by noninvasive testing.
Approaching an Employee About Her Weight - Curbside Consultation
Enlarged Tonsils and Fatigue - Photo Quiz
Weight Loss Maintenance - Article
ABSTRACT: Successful long-term weight loss maintenance can be achieved by various means. A combination of dietary and physical activity interventions, along with one or more behavioral approaches, has proven successful in some persons, as documented by the National Weight Control Registry, but is limited by adherence to a consistent weight loss regimen. Successful approaches to weight loss maintenance include consulting with a physician, nutritionist, or another support source; adhering to a stable diet with a limited variety of food; monitoring weight; eating breakfast; and exercising regularly. Long-term pharmacologic treatments for weight loss maintenance have been studied and were found to have modest success, with some weight regain typically reported. Sibutramine and orlistat are the two medications approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration with the potential to help patients achieve long-term weight loss maintenance. Bariatric surgery is another modality for accomplishing successful long-term weight loss maintenance in patients with morbid or complicated obesity. Its success is due in large part to better weight loss outcomes, more successful long-term weight loss maintenance, and remission of comorbid medical conditions.
What a Patient's Numbers Don't Tell - The Last Word
ABSTRACT: Weight loss late in the course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease is common and often multifactorial. Increased energy expenditure in response to opportunistic disease, as well as to HIV infection itself, can lead to protein-calorie malnutrition similar to that observed in starvation. Weight loss of as little as 5 percent in patients with HIV infection is associated with an increased risk of disease progression. Loss of body cell mass carries a particularly poor prognosis, and aggressive measures should be taken to stop such depletion. Patients exhibiting unexpected weight loss should be carefully examined to exclude decreased food intake, malabsorption, occult infection or neoplasm as the etiology of the weight loss. Early aggressive treatment of HIV disease and underlying opportunistic pathology, along with adequate pharmacologic, hormonal, nutritional and physical therapy, can often restore normal weight and body composition.