ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Behavioral Counseling in Primary Care to Promote Physical Activity: Recommendations and Rationale - U.S. Preventive Services Task Force
Behavioral Counseling in Primary Care to Promote Physical Activity - Putting Prevention into Practice
Physical Activity Goals for Sedentary Patients - Editorials
Use of Patient Registries in U.S. Primary Care Practices - Graham Center Policy One-Pagers
Interventions to Improve Blood Pressure Control in Patients with Hypertension - Cochrane for Clinicians
Discussing Treatment Options with Patients - Curbside Consultation
ABSTRACT: Urine drug screening can enhance workplace safety, monitor medication compliance, and detect drug abuse. Ordering and interpreting these tests requires an understanding of testing modalities, detection times for specific drugs, and common explanations for false-positive and false-negative results. Employment screening, federal regulations, unusual patient behavior, and risk patterns may prompt urine drug screening. Compliance testing may be necessary for patients taking controlled substances. Standard immunoassay testing is fast, inexpensive, and the preferred initial test for urine drug screening. This method reliably detects morphine, codeine, and heroin; however, it often does not detect other opioids such as hydrocodone, oxycodone, methadone, fentanyl, buprenorphine, and tramadol. Unexpected positive test results should be confirmed with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry or high-performance liquid chromatography. A positive test result reflects use of the drug within the previous one to three days, although marijuana can be detected in the system for a longer period of time. Careful attention to urine collection methods can identify some attempts by patients to produce false-negative test results.
Pelvic Organ Prolapse - Article
ABSTRACT: Pelvic organ prolapse, or genital prolapse, is the descent of one or more of the pelvic structures (bladder, uterus, vagina) from the normal anatomic location toward or through the vaginal opening. Women of all ages may be affected, although pelvic organ prolapse is more common in older women. The cause is a loss of pelvic support from multiple factors, including direct injury to the levator ani, as well as neurologic injury from stretching of the pudendal nerves that may occur with vaginal childbirth. Previous hysterectomy for pelvic organ prolapse; ethnicity; and an increase in intra-abdominal pressure from chronic coughing, straining with constipation, or repeated heavy lifting may contribute. Most patients with pelvic organ prolapse are asymptomatic. A sense of bulging or protrusion in the vagina is the most specific symptom. Evaluation includes a systematic pelvic examination. Management options for women with symptomatic prolapse include observation, pelvic floor muscle training, mechanical support (pessaries), and surgery. Pessary use should be considered before surgery in women who have symptomatic prolapse. Most women can be fitted with a pessary regardless of the stage or site of predominant prolapse. Surgical procedures are obliterative or reconstructive.
Preventive Health: Time for Change - Editorials