Items in AFP with MESH term: Absorptiometry, Photon
ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis affects nearly 28 million elderly Americans. Its major clinical manifestation is fragility fractures of the spine, hip, and distal radius. Low bone mass is the most important risk factor for a fragility fracture. In 1994, the World Health Organization defined osteoporosis on the basis of a bone mineral density that is 2.5 standard deviations below that in peak young normal persons. Three common imaging modalities used to assess bone strength are dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, quantitative computed tomography, and calcaneal ultrasonography. The first two modalities measure bone mineral density in both the lumbar spine and peripheral sites. It is thought that calcaneal ultrasonography measures bone architecture and density. Unlike the other studies, ultrasonography currently cannot be used for monitoring skeletal changes over time or evaluating response to therapy.
Osteoporosis in Men - Article
ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis in men is now recognized as an increasingly important public health issue. About 30 percent of hip fractures occur in men, and one in eight men older than 50 years will have an osteoporotic fracture. Because of their greater peak bone mass, men usually present with hip, vertebral body, or distal wrist fractures 10 years later than women. Hip fractures in men, however, result in a 31 percent mortality rate at one year after fracture versus a rate of 17 percent in women. Major risk factors for osteoporosis in men are glucocorticoid use for longer than six months, osteopenia seen on plain radiographs, a history of nontraumatic fracture, hypogonadism, and advancing age. Bisphosphonates and teriparatide (recombinant parathyhroid hormone) have recently been approved for use in men and should be considered along with supplemental calcium and vitamin D. Increased awareness by physicians of risk factors for male osteoporosis--and early diagnosis and treatment--are needed to decrease the morbidity and mortality resulting from osteoporotic fractures.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Osteoporosis - Article
ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis affects approximately 8 million women and 2 million men in the United States. The associated fractures are a common and preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in up to 50 percent of older women. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry to screen all women 65 years and older and women 60 to 64 years of age who have increased fracture risk. Some organizations recommend considering screening in all men 70 years and older. For persons with osteoporosis diagnosed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry or previous fragility fracture, effective first-line treatment consists of fall prevention, adequate intake of calcium (at least 1,200 mg per day) and vitamin D (at least 700 to 800 IU per day), and treatment with a bisphosphonate. Raloxifene, calcitonin, teriparatide, or hormone therapy maybe considered for certain subsets of patients.
Screening for Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women - Putting Prevention into Practice
Screening for Osteoporosis: Recommendation Statement - U.S. Preventive Services Task Force
Screening for Osteoporosis - Putting Prevention into Practice
Parathyroid Disorders - Article
ABSTRACT: Disorders of the parathyroid glands most commonly present with abnormalities of serum calcium. Patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, the most common cause of hypercalcemia in outpatients, are often asymptomatic or may have bone disease, nephrolithiasis, or neuromuscular symptoms. Patients with chronic kidney disease may develop secondary hyperparathyroidism with resultant chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder. Hypoparathyroidism most often occurs after neck surgery; it can also be caused by autoimmune destruction of the glands and other less common problems. Evaluation of patients with abnormal serum calcium levels includes a history and physical examination; repeat measurement of serum calcium level; and measurement of creatinine, magnesium, vitamin D, and parathyroid hormone levels. The treatment for symptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism is parathyroidectomy. Management of asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism includes monitoring symptoms; serum calcium and creatinine levels; and bone mineral density. Patients with hypoparathyroidism require close monitoring and vitamin D (e.g., calcitriol) replacement.