ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
ABSTRACT: Appropriate management of pregnant patients who have human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease can have a major impact on maternal and infant health. The goals of therapy are to properly manage the pregnancy, treat the maternal HIV infection and minimize the risk of vertical transmission of HIV. Early detection of HIV through aggressive screening programs is necessary to initiate timely therapy. Zidovudine therapy given antepartum and intrapartum to the mother and after birth to the newborn has been shown to decrease the risk of vertical transmission. Evidence suggests that more aggressive antiretroviral therapy for the mother, which allows suppression of viral loads to undetectable levels, may be safe and may provide significant additional benefits. However, treatment needs to be individualized, weighing the possible teratogenic risks against the benefits of decreased transmission. Multiple prospective cohort studies support elective cesarean section as an additional means to decrease vertical transmission, but its role in relation to other therapies has not been determined. As in nonpregnant patients infected with HIV, prevention of opportunistic infections and adequate psychosocial support are essential.
Update on the Treatment of Tuberculosis - Article
ABSTRACT: Approximately one third of the world's population, including more than 11 million persons in the United States, is latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although most cases of tuberculosis in the United States occur in foreign-born persons from endemic countries, the prevalence is generally greater in economically disadvantaged populations and in persons with immunosuppressive conditions. Delays in detection and treatment allow for greater transmission of the infection. Compared with the traditional tuberculin skin test and acid-fast bacilli smear, newer interferon-gamma release assays and nucleic acid amplification assays lead to more rapid and specific detection of M. tuberculosis infection and active disease, respectively. Nine months of isoniazid therapy is the treatment of choice for most patients with latent tuberculosis infection. When active tuberculosis is identified, combination therapy with isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol should be promptly initiated for a two-month "intensive phase," and in most cases, followed by isoniazid and a rifamycin product for a four- to seven-month "continuation phase." Directly observed therapy should be used. Although currently limited in the United States, multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant strains of tuberculosis are increasingly recognized in many countries, reaffirming the need for prompt diagnosis and adequate treatment strategies. Similarly, care of persons coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis poses additional challenges, including drug interactions and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.
Abstinence-Plus Programs for Prevention of HIV - Cochrane for Clinicians
HIV Infection: The Role of Primary Care - Article
ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus infection was first documented in the United States in 1981. Since that time, significant strides have been made in the prevention and treatment of the condition. Screening is paramount in identifying early infection and is now a routine component of primary care. Primary care physicians are also often involved in monitoring patients with the infection. Diagnosis can occur at any stage of human immunodeficiency virus infection. The acute retro-viral syndrome that occurs shortly after infection is characterized by constitutional symptoms and is often difficult to differentiate from common community-acquired viruses. Appropriate management with combination antiretroviral therapy often extends the patient's life, sometimes for many years. Selection of pharmacotherapy is usually based on genotypic or phenotypic resistance testing. Therapy is lifelong and complicated by pill burden, cost, adverse effects, and drug interactions.
ABSTRACT: An estimated one fourth of persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are not aware they are infected. Early diagnosis of HIV has the potential to ensure optimal outcomes for infected persons and to limit the spread of the virus. Important barriers to testing among physicians include insufficient time, reimbursement issues, and lack of patient acceptance. Current HIV testing guidelines address many of these barriers by making the testing process more streamlined and less stigmatizing. The opt-out consent process has been shown to improve test acceptance. Formal pretest counseling and written consent are no longer recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Nevertheless, pretest discussions provide an opportunity to give information about HIV, address fears of discrimination, and identify ongoing high-risk activities. With increased HIV screening in the primary care setting, more persons with HIV could be identified earlier, receive timely and appropriate care, and get treatment to prevent clinical progression and transmission.
AAP Technical Report on the Prevention of Pneumococcal Infections - Practice Guidelines
Newsletter - AAFP News: AFP Edition
Clinical Briefs - Clinical Briefs
Conference Highlights - Conference Highlights
Newsletter - AAFP News: AFP Edition