ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Clinical Briefs - Clinical Briefs
HHS Updates Guidelines for Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV Infection - Practice Guidelines
Newsletter - AAFP News: AFP Edition
Facial Masses - Photo Quiz
ABSTRACT: Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection often develop multiple complications and comorbidities. Opportunistic infections should always be considered in the evaluation of symptomatic patients with advanced HIV/AIDS, although the overall incidence of these infections has decreased. Primary care of HIV infection includes the early detection of some complications through screening at-risk and symptomatic patients with routine laboratory monitoring (e.g., comprehensive metabolic and lipid panels) and validated tools (e.g., the HIV Dementia Scale). Treatment of many chronic complications is similar for patients with HIV infection and those without infection; however, combination antiretroviral therapy has shown benefit for some conditions, such as HIV-associated nephropathy. For other complications, such as cardiovascular disease and lipoatrophy, management may include switching antiretroviral regimens to reduce exposure to HIV medications known to cause toxicity.
Challenges of Improving Adherence to HIV Therapy - Editorials
Copper Intrauterine Device vs. Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate for Contraception - Cochrane for Clinicians
Large, Eroded Penile Mass in a Patient with HIV - Photo Quiz
Antiretroviral Therapy to Prevent Transmission in HIV-Discordant Couples - Cochrane for Clinicians
Syphilis: A Reemerging Infection - Article
ABSTRACT: Rates of primary and secondary syphilis have increased in the past decade, warranting renewed attention to the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. Men who have sex with men are particularly affected; however, increases in infection rates have also been noted in women, as well as in all age groups and ethnicities. Physicians need to vigilantly screen high-risk patients. The concurrent rise in congenital syphilis also requires special attention and reemphasizes the need for continued early prenatal care and syphilis screening for all pregnant women. Syphilis infection in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus has also become more common. New experimental diagnostic approaches, including using the B cell chemoattractant chemokine (CXC motif) ligand 13 as a cerebrospinal fluid marker, may help identify suspected neurosyphilis cases. Additionally, point-of-care immunochromatographic strip testing has been suggested for screening high-risk populations in developing countries. Nontreponemal screening tests followed by treponemal confirmatory tests continue to be standard diagnostics; however, interpreting false-negative and false-positive test results, and identifying serofast reactions, can be challenging. Although doxycycline, tetracycline, ceftriaxone, and azithromycin have been used to successfully treat syphilis, penicillin remains the drug of choice in all stages of infection and is the therapy recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Close follow-up is necessary to ensure treatment success.