ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Estrogen Replacement Therapy
Hormone Therapy for the Prevention of Chronic Conditions in Postmenopausal Women - Putting Prevention into Practice
Hormone Therapy in Postmenopausal and Perimenopausal Women - Cochrane for Clinicians
ABSTRACT: Family physicians will frequently encounter patients with osteoporosis, a condition that is often asymptomatic until a fracture occurs. Treatment of the fracture can be initiated without further diagnostic testing. Thereafter, treatment of osteoporosis includes (1) prevention of further bone loss through weight-bearing exercise, tobacco and alcohol avoidance, hormone replacement therapy in women, and raloxifene and calcium supplementation; (2) treatment of fracture-related pain with analgesics and calcitonin; (3) building bone mass when feasible with alendronate; and (4) modifying behaviors that increase the risk of falls. Patients without fracture who are at risk for osteoporosis can also benefit from these preventive measures. Furthermore, women of all ages should be encouraged to maintain a daily calcium intake of 1,000 to 1,500 mg and to participate in weight-bearing exercise for 30 minutes three times weekly to reduce their risk of falls and fractures. Persons at risk should avoid medications known to compromise bone density, such as glucocorticoids, thyroid hormones and chronic heparin therapy.
ABSTRACT: The results of recent large clinical trials have led physicians and patients to question the safety of menopausal hormone therapy. In the past, physicians prescribed hormone therapy in an attempt to improve overall health and prevent cardiac disease. Hormone therapy appears to increase the risk of breast cancer when used for more than three to five years; therefore, regulatory agencies now advise that physicians prescribe it only to treat menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes and vaginal atrophy, with the smallest effective dosage and for the shortest possible duration. Although estrogen is the most effective treatment for hot flashes, alternatives such as venlafaxine and gabapentin are effective for some patients. Herbal formulations such as dong quai, ginseng, kava, and dietary soy, among others, do not appear to benefit patients more than placebo. In contrast to systemic estrogen therapy, topical estrogen therapy for vulvovaginal atrophy is more appealing for certain patients because it does not require the addition of a progestogen for endometrial protection. Some have advocated selective estrogen reuptake modulators as alternatives to hormone therapy for the prevention of menopausal osteoporosis. The decision to use either therapy depends on clinical presentation and a thorough evaluation of the risks and benefits, because both have potential detrimental health effects and both are linked to an increased risk of venous thromboembolism.
Is Raloxifene the Answer to the HRT Story? - Editorials
Options and Issues in Managing Menopause - Editorials
ACOG Releases Practice Bulletin on Osteoporosis - Practice Guidelines