ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
ABSTRACT: Persons with mental retardation are living longer and integrating into their communities. Primary medical care of persons with mental retardation should involve continuity of care, maintenance of comprehensive treatment documentation, routine periodic health screening, and an understanding of the unique medical and behavioral disorders common to this population. Office visits can be successful if physicians familiarize patients with the office and staff, plan for difficult behaviors, and administer mild sedation when appropriate. Some syndromes that cause mental retardation have specific medical and behavioral features. Health issues in these patients include respiratory problems, gastrointestinal disorders, challenging behaviors, and neurologic conditions. Some commonly overlooked health concerns are sexuality, sexually transmitted diseases, and end-of-life decisions.
ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the primary cause of death in women for almost a century, and more women than men have died of CVD every year since 1984. Although CVD incidence can be reduced by adherence to a heart-healthy lifestyle and detection and treatment of major risk factors, preventive recommendations have not been consistently or optimally applied to women. The American Heart Association guidelines for CVD prevention in women provide physicians with a clear plan for assessment and treatment of CVD risk and personalization of treatment recommendations. The emphasis of preventive efforts has shifted away from treatment of individual CVD risk factors in isolation toward assessment of a woman's overall or "global" CVD risk. In addition to accounting for the presence or absence of preexisting coronary heart disease or its equivalents (e.g., diabetes, chronic kidney disease), cardiovascular risk can be further calculated with the Framingham risk score, which is based on age, sex, smoking history, and lipid and blood pressure levels. Intervention intensity and treatment goals are tailored to overall risk, with those at highest risk receiving the most intense risk-lowering interventions. Women at high risk for CVD and without contraindications should receive aspirin, beta blockers, and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker in addition to pharmacologic therapy for hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes. Women who already are at optimal or low risk for CVD should be encouraged to maintain or further improve their healthy lifestyle practices. Optimal application of these preventive practices significantly reduces the burden of death and disability caused by heart attack and stroke in women.
ABSTRACT: The incidence of uterine fibroid tumors increases as women grow older, and they may occur in more than 30 percent of women 40 to 60 years of age. Risk factors include nulliparity, obesity, family history, black race, and hypertension. Many tumors are asymptomatic and may be diagnosed incidentally. Although a causal relationship has not been established, fibroid tumors are associated with menorrhagia, pelvic pain, pelvic or urinary obstructive symptoms, infertility, and pregnancy loss. Transvaginal ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, sonohysterography, and hysteroscopy are available to evaluate the size and position of tumors. Ultrasonography should be used initially because it is the least invasive and most cost-effective investigation. Treatment options include hysterectomy, myomectomy, uterine artery embolization, myolysis, and medical therapy. Treatment must be individualized based on such considerations as the presence and severity of symptoms, the patient's desire for definitive treatment, the desire to preserve childbearing capacity, the importance of uterine preservation, infertility related to uterine cavity distortions, and previous pregnancy complications related to fibroid tumors.
Fracture Prevention in Postmenopausal Women - Clinical Evidence Handbook
ABSTRACT: Exercise is beneficial for women of all ages and is associated with long-term health benefits and enhanced well-being. Nevertheless, active women and girls are at risk for conditions resulting from sports and exercise participation. Because of their unique physiology, children are more susceptible to heat illness than adolescents and younger adults. Childhood sports injuries tend to involve the growth plate. Adolescents share some concerns with child athletes but have injuries more similar to those that occur in adults, especially ligament and tendon injuries. Adolescents and adult women are at risk for anterior cruciate ligament injuries, patellofemoral pain syndrome, and stress fractures. For athletes in these age groups, physicians should screen for pelvic floor dysfunction and the female athlete triad, especially in patients with a history of stress fractures. In adult women, exercise can contribute to disease prevention and management. Continuation of an appropriate exercise routine helps older women maintain independence and prevent falls.
Newsletter - AAFP News: AFP Edition
The Heart of Women's Health - Editorials
Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Women - Editorials