Items in AFP with MESH term: Peripheral Vascular Diseases
ABSTRACT: Peripheral vascular disease is a manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis that leads to significant narrowing of arteries distal to the arch of the aorta. The most common symptom of peripheral vascular disease is intermittent claudication. At other times, peripheral vascular disease leads to acute or critical limb ischemia. Intermittent claudication manifests as pain in the muscles of the legs with exercise; it is experienced by 2 percent of persons older than 65 years. Physical findings include abnormal pedal pulses, femoral artery bruit, delayed venous filling time, cool skin, and abnormal skin color. Most patients present with subtle findings and lack classic symptoms, which makes the diagnosis difficult. The standard office-based test to determine the presence of peripheral vascular disease is calculation of the ankle-brachial index. Magnetic resonance arteriography, duplex scanning, and hemodynamic localization are noninvasive methods for lesion localization and may be helpful when symptoms or findings do not correlate with the ankle-brachial index. Contrast arteriography is used for definitive localization before intervention. Treatment is divided into lifestyle, medical, and surgical therapies. Lifestyle therapies focus on exercise, smoking cessation, and dietary modification. Medical therapy is directed at reducing platelet aggregation. In addition, patients with contributing disorders such as hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia need to have these conditions managed as aggressively as possible. Surgical therapies include stents, arterectomies, angioplasty, and bypass surgery.
Vascular Surgery: An Update - Article
ABSTRACT: Caring for patients with vascular illnesses has become increasingly more complex and has changed dramatically over the past 10 years, with a widening array of diagnostic and treatment options. Carotid artery stenting has the potential to become a viable alternative to open surgery in high-risk patients with carotid artery disease (i.e., patients older than 80 years and those with previous neck surgery or irradiation, contralateral carotid artery occlusion, contralateral laryngeal nerve injury, or angina). However, the effectiveness of carotid artery stenting as a therapy is still being evaluated in randomized trials. Endovascular aortic aneurysm repair is an option for patients who desire or require a less invasive modality and who have suitable aortic anatomy. Surgical reconstruction remains the standard treatment for ischemic rest pain and tissue loss (critical limb ischemia). Balloon angioplasty and stenting are treatment options for peripheral vascular disease, although treatment is dependent on the arterial segment or segments involved.
Management of Peripheral Aterial Disease - Article
ABSTRACT: Peripheral arterial disease is common, but the diagnosis frequently is overlooked because of subtle physical findings and lack of classic symptoms. Screening based on the ankle brachial index using Doppler ultrasonography may be more useful than physical examination alone. Noninvasive modalities to locate lesions include magnetic resonance angiography, duplex scanning, and hemodynamic localization. Major risk factors for peripheral arterial disease are cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, older age (older than 40 years), hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hyperhomocystinemia. Nonsurgical therapy for intermittent claudication involves risk-factor modification, exercise, and pharmacologic therapy. Based on available evidence, a supervised exercise program is the most effective treatment. All patients with peripheral arterial disease should undergo aggressive control of blood pressure, sugar intake, and lipid levels. All available strategies to help patients quit smoking, such as counseling and nicotine replacement, should be used. Effective drug therapies for peripheral arterial disease include aspirin (with or without dipyridamole), clopidogrel, cilostazol, and pentoxifylline.
ABSTRACT: Peripheral vascular disease of the lower extremities is an important cause of morbidity that affects up to 10 million people in the United States. The primary care physician can easily identify patients who are at risk for the disease with a questionnaire and a relatively simple test-the ankle brachial index. More than 70 percent of patients diagnosed with the disease remain stable or improve with conservative management. Those who do not improve may undergo contrast angiography or magnetic resonance angiography, which may be used in planning for surgery or percutaneous intervention. Surgical bypass is the gold standard for extensive vascular occlusive disease, but endovascular interventions, including percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stent placement, are being used more frequently, particularly in patients with significant comorbid conditions.
Peripheral Arterial Disease - Clinical Evidence Handbook
Screening for Peripheral Arterial Disease: Recommendation Statement - U.S. Preventive Services Task Force
Screening for Peripheral Arterial Disease - Putting Prevention into Practice
Skin Plaques in a Woman with Renal Disease - Photo Quiz