ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
ABSTRACT: Induction of labor is common in obstetric practice. According to the most current studies, the rate varies from 9.5 to 33.7 percent of all pregnancies annually. In the absence of a ripe or favorable cervix, a successful vaginal birth is less likely. Therefore, cervical ripening or preparedness for induction should be assessed before a regimen is selected. Assessment is accomplished by calculating a Bishop score. When the Bishop score is less than 6, it is recommended that a cervical ripening agent be used before labor induction. Nonpharmacologic approaches to cervical ripening and labor induction have included herbal compounds, castor oil, hot baths, enemas, sexual intercourse, breast stimulation, acupuncture, acupressure, transcutaneous nerve stimulation, and mechanical and surgical modalities. Of these nonpharmacologic methods, only the mechanical and surgical methods have proven efficacy for cervical ripening or induction of labor. Pharmacologic agents available for cervical ripening and labor induction include prostaglandins, misoprostol, mifepristone, and relaxin. When the Bishop score is favorable, the preferred pharmacologic agent is oxytocin.
First Trimester Bleeding - Article
ABSTRACT: Vaginal bleeding in the first trimester occurs in about one fourth of pregnancies. About one half of those who bleed will miscarry. Guarded reassurance and watchful waiting are appropriate if fetal heart sounds are detected, if the patient is medically stable, and if there is no adnexal mass or clinical sign of intraperitoneal bleeding. Discriminatory criteria using transvaginal ultrasonography and beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin testing aid in distinguishing among the many conditions of first trimester bleeding. Possible causes of bleeding include subchorionic hemorrhage, embryonic demise, anembryonic pregnancy, incomplete abortion, ectopic pregnancy, and gestational trophoblastic disease. When beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin reaches levels of 1,500 to 2,000 mIU per mL (1,500 to 2,000 IU per L), a normal pregnancy should exhibit a gestational sac by transvaginal ultrasonography. When the gestational sac is greater than 10 mm in diameter, a yolk sac must be present. A live embryo must exhibit cardiac activity when the crown-rump length is greater than 5 mm. In a normal pregnancy, beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin levels increase by 80 percent every 48 hours. The absence of any normal discriminatory findings is consistent with early pregnancy failure, but does not distinguish between ectopic pregnancy and failed intrauterine pregnancy. The presence of an adnexal mass or free pelvic fluid represents ectopic pregnancy until proven otherwise. Medical management with misoprostol is highly effective for early intrauterine pregnancy failure with the exception of gestational trophoblastic disease, which must be surgically evacuated. Expectant treatment is effective for many patients with incomplete abortion. Medical management with methotrexate is highly effective for properly selected patients with ectopic pregnancy. Follow-up after early pregnancy loss should include attention to future pregnancy planning, contraception, and psychological aspects of care.
Medical Methods for First-Trimester Abortion - Cochrane for Clinicians
Vaginal Misoprostol for Cervical Ripening in Term Pregnancy - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries
Planned Early Birth vs. Expectant Management for PROM - Cochrane for Clinicians
ABSTRACT: The management of early pregnancy loss used to be based largely in the hospital setting, but it has shifted to the outpatient setting, allowing women to remain under the care of their family physician throughout the miscarriage process. Up to 15 percent of recognized pregnancies end in miscarriage, and as many as 80 percent of miscarriages occur in the first trimester, with chromosomal abnormalities as the leading cause. In general, no interventions have been proven to prevent miscarriage; occasionally women can modify their risk factors or receive treatment for relevant medical conditions. Unless products of conception are seen, the diagnosis of miscarriage is made with ultrasonography and, when ultrasonography is not available or is nondiagnostic, with measurement of beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin levels. Management options for early pregnancy loss include expectant management, medical management with misoprostol, and uterine aspiration. Expectant management is highly effective for the treatment of incomplete abortion, whereas misoprostol and uterine aspiration are more effective for the management of anembryonic gestation and embryonic demise. Misoprostol in a dose of 800 mcg administered vaginally is effective and well-tolerated. Compared with dilation and curettage in the operating room, uterine aspiration is the preferred procedure for early pregnancy loss; aspiration is equally safe, quicker to perform, more cost-effective, and amenable to use in the primary care setting. All management options are equally safe; thus, patient preference should guide treatment choice.
ACOG Develops Guidelines for Induction of Labor - Practice Guidelines
Misoprostol for Incomplete First Trimester Miscarriage - Cochrane for Clinicians