ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
The 2001 Bethesda System Terminology - Article
ABSTRACT: The 2001 Bethesda System for reporting cervical or vaginal cytologic diagnoses is an incremental change in the uniform terminology introduced in 1988 and revised in 1991. The 2001 Bethesda System includes specific statements about specimen adequacy, general categorization, and interpretation and results. In the adequacy category, "satisfactory" and "unsatisfactory" are retained, but "satisfactory but limited by" is eliminated. The new category of "atypical squamous cells" (ASC) replaces the category of "atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance" (ASCUS) and is divided into qualifiers of (1) ASC of "undetermined significance" (ASC-US) and (2) "cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL)," or (ASC-H). The categories of ASCUS, "favor reactive" and "favor neoplasia" are eliminated. The terminology for low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs) and HSILs remains unchanged. The category of "atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance" (AGUS) is eliminated to avoid confusion with ASCUS and is replaced by the term "atypical glandular cells" (AGC), with attempts to identify whether the origin of the cells is endometrial, endocervical, or unqualified. "Endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ" and "AGC, favor neoplastic" are included as separate AGC categories. The presence of normal or abnormal endometrial cells is to be reported in women who are at least 40 years of age. Educational notes and comments on ancillary testing may be added as appropriate.
Abnormal Uterine Bleeding - Article
ABSTRACT: Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common presenting symptom in the family practice setting. In women of childbearing age, a methodical history, physical examination, and laboratory evaluation may enable the physician to rule out causes such as pregnancy and pregnancy-related disorders, medications, iatrogenic causes, systemic conditions, and obvious genital tract pathology. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (anovulatory or ovulatory) is diagnosed by exclusion of these causes. In women of childbearing age who are at high risk for endometrial cancer, the initial evaluation includes endometrial biopsy; saline-infusion sonohysterography or diagnostic hysteroscopy is performed if initial studies are inconclusive or the bleeding continues. Women of childbearing age who are at low risk for endometrial cancer may be assessed initially by transvaginal ultrasonography. Postmenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding should be offered dilatation and curettage; if they are poor candidates for general anesthesia or decline dilatation and curettage, they may be offered transvaginal ultrasonography or saline-infusion sonohysterography with directed endometrial biopsy. Medical management of anovulatory dysfunctional uterine bleeding may include oral contraceptive pills or cyclic progestins. Menorrhagia is managed most effectively with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or the levonorgestrel intrauterine contraceptive device. Surgical management may include hysterectomy or less invasive, uterus-sparing procedures.
Endometrial Biopsy - Article
ABSTRACT: Endometrial biopsy is an office procedure that serves as a helpful tool in diagnosing various uterine abnormalities. The technique is fairly easy to learn and may be performed without assistance. The biopsy is obtained through the use of an endometrial suction catheter that is inserted through the cervix into the uterine cavity. Twirling the catheter while moving it in and out of the uterine cavity enhances uptake of uterine tissue, which is aspirated into the catheter and removed. Endometrial biopsy is useful in the work-up of abnormal uterine bleeding, cancer screening, endometrial dating and infertility evaluation. Contraindications to the procedure include pregnancy, acute pelvic inflammatory disease, and acute cervical or vaginal infections. Postoperative infection is rare but may be further prevented through the use of prophylactic antibiotic therapy. Intraoperative and postoperative cramping are frequent side effects.
Postmenopausal Hormone Replacement Therapy for the Primary Prevention of Chronic Conditions - U.S. Preventive Services Task Force
ACS Guidelines for Early Detection of Cancer - Practice Guidelines
Endometrial Cancer - Article
ABSTRACT: Endometrial cancer is the leading cause of gynecologic cancer in the United States. Etiologically, endometrial carcinoma usually results from unopposed estrogen stimulation of the endometrium, although non-estrogen-related forms occur as well. The most common presentation of endometrial cancer is postmenopausal bleeding. A variety of diagnostic modalities are available to aid in the detection of the disease, each with its own strengths and limitations. These modalities include endometrial biopsy, ultrasonography, saline infusion sonography, and hysteroscopy. A definitive diagnosis requires pathologic confirmation via endometrial biopsy or dilatation and curettage. Surgical staging of endometrial cancer will dictate how physicians manage the condition. For most women, staging and initial treatment are accomplished with total hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and peritoneal washings. Surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy play a role in treatment, depending on tumor stage and grade. At present, there are no recommendations for screening the general population.
Endometrial Cancer - Article
ABSTRACT: Endometrial cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women, accounting for approximately 6,000 deaths per year in the United States. It is more common in women who are older, white, affluent obese and of low parity. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are also predisposing factors. Because any condition that increases exposure to unopposed estrogen increases the risk of endometrial cancer, tamoxifen therapy, estrogen replacement therapy without progestin and the presence of estrogen-secreting tumors are all risk factors. Smoking and the use of oral contraceptives appear to decrease the risk. Women with an increased risk and those with postmenopausal bleeding should be screened for endometrial cancer. Endometrial sampling is currently the most accurate and widely used screening technique, but ultrasonographic measurement of endometrial thickness and hysteroscopy have also been studied. Patients with endometrial specimens that show atypia have about a 25 percent likelihood of progressing to carcinoma, compared with less than 2 percent in patients without atypia. Endometrial cancer is usually treated surgically, but in patients with appropriate pathologic findings who decline surgical treatment, progestin therapy may be satisfactory.
ACS Releases Updated Guidelines on Cancer Screening - Practice Guidelines
ABSTRACT: Women who have abnormal Papanicolaou test results may undergo colposcopy to determine the biopsy site for histologic evaluation. Traditional grading systems do not accurately assess lesion severity because colposcopic impression alone is unreliable for diagnosis. The likelihood of finding cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or higher increases when two or more cervical biopsies are performed. Excisional and ablative methods have similar treatment outcomes for the eradication of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. However, diagnostic excisional methods, including loop electrosurgical excision procedure and cold knife conization, are associated with an increased risk of adverse obstetric outcomes, such as preterm labor and low birth weight. Methods of endometrial assessment have a high sensitivity for detecting endometrial carcinoma and benign causes of uterine bleeding without unnecessary procedures. Endometrial biopsy can reliably detect carcinoma involving a large portion of the endometrium, but is suboptimal for diagnosing focal lesions. A 3- to 4-mm cutoff for endometrial thickness on transvaginal ultrasonography yields the highest sensitivity to exclude endometrial carcinoma in postmenopausal women. Saline infusion sonohysteroscopy can differentiate globally thickened endometrium amenable to endometrial biopsy from focal abnormalities best assessed by hysteroscopy. Hysteroscopy with directed biopsy is the most sensitive and specific method of diagnosing endometrial carcinoma, other than hysterectomy.