Items in AFP with MESH term: Carotid Stenosis

Stroke: Part I. A Clinical Update on Prevention - Article

ABSTRACT: Clinical trials conducted during the past five years have yielded important results that have allowed us to refine our approach to stroke prevention. Treatment of isolated systolic hypertension prevents stroke and is generally well tolerated. New antiplatelet agents (clopidogrel and the combination of aspirin plus high-dose dipyridamole) have been shown to be effective in reducing vascular events in survivors of ischemic stroke, although aspirin remains the mainstay of antiplatelet therapy for stroke prevention. Several clinical trials support the benefit of lipid-lowering agents ("statins") in reducing stroke. Warfarin reduces stroke for high-risk patients with atrial fibrillation. Carotid endarterectomy is highly beneficial in reducing stroke for symptomatic patients with severe carotid stenosis (greater than 70 percent), but the benefit is less for symptomatic patients with a moderate degree of stenosis (50 to 69 percent) and for patients with asymptomatic carotid disease of any severity.


When to Operate in Carotid Artery Disease - Article

ABSTRACT: Carotid endarterectomy has proved to be beneficial in the prevention of stroke in selected patients. The procedure is indicated in symptomatic patients with carotid-territory transient ischemic attacks or minor strokes who have carotid artery stenosis of 70 to 99 percent. With a low surgical risk, carotid endarterectomy provides modest benefit in symptomatic patients with carotid artery stenosis of 50 to 69 percent. Platelet antiaggregants and risk factor modification are recommended in symptomatic patients with less than 50 percent stenosis. In the Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis Study, carotid endarterectomy was beneficial in patients who had asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis of 60 percent or greater and whose general health made them good candidates for elective surgery, provided that the arteriographic and surgical complication rates were low. However, in asymptomatic patients, surgery reduced the absolute risk of stroke by only 1 percent per year.


Screening for Carotid Artery Stenosis - Putting Prevention into Practice


American Heart Association Scientific Statement on the Primary Prevention of Ischemic Stroke - Practice Guidelines


AHA Updates Guidelines for Carotid Endarterectomy - Special Medical Reports


Who Should Operate in Carotid Disease? - Editorials


Transient Ischemic Attack: Part II. Risk Factor Modification and Treatment - Article

ABSTRACT: Interventions following a transient ischemic attack are aimed at preventing a future episode or stroke. Hypertension, current smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia are all well-known risk factors, and controlling these factors can have dramatic effects on transient ischemic attack and stroke risk. For patients presenting within 48 hours of resolution of transient ischemic attack symptoms, advantages of hospital admission include rapid diagnostic evaluation and early intervention to reduce the risk of stroke. For long-term prevention of future stroke, the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association recommends antiplatelet agents, statins, and carotid artery intervention for advanced stenosis. Aspirin, extended-release dipyridamole/aspirin, and clopidogrel are acceptable first-line antiplatelet agents. Statins have also been shown to reduce the risk of stroke following transient ischemic attack, with maximal benefit occurring with at least a 50 percent reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level or a target of less than 70 mg per dL (1.81 mmol per L). For those with transient ischemic attack and carotid artery stenosis, carotid endarterectomy is recommended if stenosis is 70 to 99 percent, and perioperative morbidity and mortality are estimated to be less than 6 percent.



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