ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Acute Shoulder Injuries - Article
ABSTRACT: The shoulder is the most mobile joint in the human body. The cost of such versatility is an increased risk of injury. It is important that family physicians understand the anatomy of the shoulder, mechanisms of injury, typical physical and radiologic findings, approach to management of injuries, and indications for referral. Clavicle fractures are among the most common acute shoulder injuries, and more than 80 percent of them can be managed conservatively. Humeral head fractures are less common and usually occur in elderly persons; 85 percent of them can be managed nonoperatively. Common acute soft tissue injuries include shoulder dislocations, rotator cuff tears, and acromioclavicular sprains. Acromioclavicular injuries are graded from types I to VI. Types I and II are treated conservatively, types IV to VI are treated surgically, and there is debate about the best approach for type III. Eighty percent of shoulder dislocations are anterior. Diagnosis of this injury is straightforward. The injury usually can be reduced by employing a number of nonsurgical techniques. Traumatic or acute rotator cuff tears can be managed conservatively or surgically, depending on the patient and the degree of injury.
ABSTRACT: Rotator cuff impingement syndrome and associated rotator cuff tears are commonly encountered shoulder problems. Symptoms include pain, weakness and loss of motion. Causes of impingement include acromioclavicular joint arthritis, calcified coracoacromial ligament, structural abnormalities of the acromion and weakness of the rotator cuff muscles. Conservative treatment (rest, ice packs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and physical therapy) is usually sufficient. Some patients benefit from steroid injection, and a few require surgery.
Diagnosing Rotator Cuff Tears - Point-of-Care Guides
ABSTRACT: Family physicians need to understand diagnostic and treatment strategies for common causes of shoulder pain. We review key elements of the history and physical examination and describe maneuvers that can be used to reach an appropriate diagnosis. Examination of the shoulder should include inspection, palpation, evaluation of range of motion and provocative testing. In addition, a thorough sensorimotor examination of the upper extremity should be performed, and the neck and elbow should be evaluated.
Management of Chronic Tendon Injuries - Article
ABSTRACT: Chronic tendon injuries present unique management challenges. The assumption that these injuries result from ongoing inflammation has caused physicians to rely on treatments demonstrated to be ineffective in the long term. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be limited in the treatment of these injuries. Corticosteroid injections should be considered for temporizing pain relief only for rotator cuff tendinopathy. For chronic Achilles tendinopathy (symptoms lasting longer than six weeks), an intense eccentric strengthening program of the gastrocnemius/ soleus complex improved pain and function between 60 and 90 percent in randomized trials. Evidence also supports eccentric exercise as a first-line option for chronic patellar tendon injuries. Other modalities such as prolotherapy, topical nitroglycerin, iontophoresis, phonophoresis, therapeutic ultrasound, extracorporeal shock wave therapy, and low-level laser therapy have less evidence of effectiveness but are reasonable second-line alternatives to surgery for patients who have persistent pain despite appropriate rehabilitative exercise.