ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Skin Diseases, Bacterial
Common Bacterial Skin Infections - Article
ABSTRACT: Family physicians frequently treat bacterial skin infections in the office and in the hospital. Common skin infections include cellulitis, erysipelas, impetigo, folliculitis, and furuncles and carbuncles. Cellulitis is an infection of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue that has poorly demarcated borders and is usually caused by Streptococcus or Staphylococcus species. Erysipelas is a superficial form of cellulitis with sharply demarcated borders and is caused almost exclusively by Streptococcus. Impetigo is also caused by Streptococcus or Staphylococcus and can lead to lifting of the stratum corneum resulting in the commonly seen bullous effect. Folliculitis is an inflammation of the hair follicles. When the infection is bacterial rather than mechanical in nature, it is most commonly caused by Staphylococcus. If the infection of the follicle is deeper and involves more follicles, it moves into the furuncle and carbuncle stages and usually requires incision and drainage. All of these infections are typically diagnosed by clinical presentation and treated empirically. If antibiotics are required, one that is active against gram-positive organisms such as penicillinase-resistant penicillins, cephalosporins, macrolides, or fluoroquinolones should be chosen. Children, patients who have diabetes, or patients who have immunodeficiencies are more susceptible to gram-negative infections and may require treatment with a second- or third-generation cephalosporin.
ABSTRACT: Vibrio vulnificus infection is the leading cause of death related to seafood consumption in the United States. This virulent, gram-negative bacterium causes two distinct syndromes. The first is an overwhelming primary septicemia caused by consuming raw or undercooked seafood, particularly raw oysters. The second is a necrotizing wound infection acquired when an open wound is exposed to warm seawater with high concentrations of V. vulnificus. Most patients, including those with primary infection, develop sepsis and severe cellulitis with rapid development to ecchymoses and bullae. In severe cases, necrotizing fasciitis can develop. Case-fatality rates are greater than 50 percent for primary septicemia and about 15 percent for wound infections. Treatment of V vulnificus infection includes antibiotics, aggressive wound therapy, and supportive care. Most patients who acquire the infection have at least one predisposing immunocompromising condition. Physician awareness of risk factors for V. vulnificus infection combined with prompt diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve patient outcomes. (Am Fam Physic
ABSTRACT: The most common site of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection is the urogenital tract. Men with this infection may experience dysuria with penile discharge, and women may have mild vaginal mucopurulent discharge, severe pelvic pain, or no symptoms. Other N. gonorrhoeae infections include anorectal, conjunctival, pharyngeal, and ovarian/uterine. Infections that occur in the neonatal period may cause ophthalmia neonatorum. If left untreated, N. gonorrhoeae infections can disseminate to other areas of the body, which commonly causes synovium and skin infections. Disseminated gonococcal infection presents as a few skin lesions that are limited to the extremities. These legions start as papules and progress into bullae, petechiae, and necrotic lesions. The most commonly infected joints include wrists, ankles, and the joints of the hands and feet. Urogenital N. gonorrhoeae infections can be diagnosed using culture or nonculture (e.g., the nucleic acid amplification test) techniques. When multiple sites are potentially infected, culture is the only approved diagnostic test. Treatments for uncomplicated urogenital, anorectal, or pharyngeal gonococcal infections include cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones. Fluoroquinolones should not be used in patients who live in or may have contracted gonorrhea in Asia, the Pacific islands, or California, or in men who have sex with men. Gonorrhea infection should prompt physicians to test for other sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus.
CDC Updates Interim Guidelines for Anthrax Exposure Management and Antimicrobial Therapy - Practice Guidelines
"Toxic Sock" Syndrome - Photo Quiz
Perianal Streptococcal Dermatitis - Article
ABSTRACT: Perianal streptococcal dermatitis is a bright red, sharply demarcated rash that is caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. Symptoms include perianal rash, itching and rectal pain; blood-streaked stools may also be seen in one third of patients. It primarily occurs in children between six months and 10 years of age and is often misdiagnosed and treated inappropriately. A rapid streptococcal test of suspicious areas can confirm the diagnosis. Routine skin culture is an alternative diagnostic aid. Treatment with amoxicillin or penicillin is effective. Follow-up is necessary, because recurrences are common.
Persistent Skin Furuncle - Photo Quiz