ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children - Article
ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep-disordered breathing is common in children. From 3 percent to 12 percent of children snore, while obstructive sleep apnea syndrome affects 1 percent to 10 percent of children. The majority of these children have mild symptoms, and many outgrow the condition. Consequences of untreated obstructive sleep apnea include failure to thrive, enuresis, attention-deficit disorder, behavior problems, poor academic performance, and cardiopulmonary disease. The most common etiology of obstructive sleep apnea is adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Clinical diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea is reliable; however, the gold standard evaluation is overnight polysomnography. Treatment includes the use of continuous positive airway pressure and weight loss in obese children. These alternatives are tolerated poorly in children and rarely are considered primary therapy. Adenotonsillectomy is curative in most patients. Children with craniofacial syndromes, neuromuscular diseases, medical comorbidities, or severe obstructive sleep apnea, and those younger than three years are at increased risk of developing postoperative complications and should be monitored overnight in the hospital.
Excessive Daytime Sleepiness - Article
ABSTRACT: Excessive daytime sleepiness is one of the most common sleep-related patient symptoms, and it affects an estimated 20 percent of the population. Persons with excessive daytime sleepiness are at risk of motor vehicle and work-related incidents, and have poorer health than comparable adults. The most common causes of excessive daytime sleepiness are sleep deprivation, obstructive sleep apnea, and sedating medications. Other potential causes of excessive daytime sleepiness include certain medical and psychiatric conditions and sleep disorders, such as narcolepsy. Obstructive sleep apnea is a particularly significant cause of excessive daytime sleepiness. An estimated 26 to 32 percent of adults are at risk of or have obstructive sleep apnea, and the prevalence is expected to increase. The evaluation and management of excessive daytime sleepiness is based on the identification and treatment of underlying conditions (particularly obstructive sleep apnea), and the appropriate use of activating medications.
Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Children - Practice Guidelines
Sleep Apnea - Clinical Evidence Handbook
Common Sleep Disorders in Children - Article
ABSTRACT: Up to 50% of children will experience a sleep problem. Early identification of sleep problems may prevent negative consequences, such as daytime sleepiness, irritability, behavioral problems, learning difficulties, motor vehicle crashes in teenagers, and poor academic performance. Obstructive sleep apnea occurs in 1% to 5% of children. Polysomnography is needed to diagnose the condition because it may not be detected through history and physical examination alone. Adenotonsillectomy is the primary treatment for most children with obstructive sleep apnea. Parasomnias are common in childhood; sleepwalking, sleep talking, confusional arousals, and sleep terrors tend to occur in the first half of the night, whereas nightmares are more common in the second half of the night. Only 4% of parasomnias will persist past adolescence; thus, the best management is parental reassurance and proper safety measures. Behavioral insomnia of childhood is common and is characterized by a learned inability to fall and/or stay asleep. Management begins with consistent implementation of good sleep hygiene practices, and, in some cases, use of extinction techniques may be appropriate. Delayed sleep phase disorder is most common in adolescence, presenting as difficulty falling asleep and awakening at socially acceptable times. Treatment involves good sleep hygiene and a consistent sleep-wake schedule, with nighttime melatonin and/or morning bright light therapy as needed. Diagnosing restless legs syndrome in children can be difficult; management focuses on trigger avoidance and treatment of iron deficiency, if present.
Management of Common Sleep Disorders - Article
ABSTRACT: Sleep disorders are common and affect sleep quality and quantity, leading to increased morbidity. Patients with sleep disorders can be categorized as those who cannot sleep, those who will not sleep, those with excessive daytime sleepiness, and those with increased movements during sleep. Insomnia, defined as difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep that results in daytime impairment, is diagnosed using history findings and treated with cognitive behavior therapy, with or without sleep hypnotics. Restless legs syndrome is characterized by an urge to move the legs that worsens with rest, is relieved by movement, and often occurs in the evening or at night. Restless legs syndrome is treated based on the frequency of symptoms. Narcolepsy is characterized by excessive sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis. It is diagnosed using a sleep log or actigraphy, followed by overnight polysomnography and a multiple sleep latency test. Narcolepsy is treated with stimulants, such as modafinil; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors; or gamma hydroxybutyric acid (sodium oxybate). Patients with snoring and witnessed apneas may have obstructive sleep apnea, which is diagnosed using overnight polysomnography. Continuous positive airway pressure is the most common and effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is characterized by increased muscle tone during rapid eye movement sleep, resulting in the patient acting out dreams with possible harmful consequences. It is diagnosed based on history and polysomnography findings, and treated with environmental safety measures and melatonin or clonazepam.