ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Proton Pump Inhibitors: An Update - Article
ABSTRACT: Since their introduction in the late 1980s, proton pump inhibitors have demonstrated gastric acid suppression superior to that of histamine H2-receptor blockers. Proton pump inhibitors have enabled improved treatment of various acid-peptic disorders, including gastroesophageal reflux disease, peptic ulcer disease, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug-induced gastropathy. Proton pump inhibitors have minimal side effects and few significant drug interactions, and they are generally considered safe for long-term treatment. The proton pump inhibitors omeprazole, lansoprazole, rabeprazole, and the recently approved esomeprazole appear to have similar efficacy.
ABSTRACT: The primary treatment goals in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease are relief of symptoms, prevention of symptom relapse, healing of erosive esophagitis, and prevention of complications of esophagitis. In patients with reflux esophagitis, treatment is directed at acid suppression through the use of lifestyle modifications (e.g., elevating the head of the bed, modifying the size and composition of meals) and pharmacologic agents (a histamine H2-receptor antagonist [H2RA] taken on demand or a proton pump inhibitor IPPI] taken 30 to 60 minutes before the first meal of the day). The preferred empiric approach is step-up therapy (treat initially with an H2RA for eight weeks; if symptoms do not improve, change to a PPI) or step-down therapy (treat initially with a PPI; then titrate to the lowest effective medication type and dosage). In patients with erosive esophagitis identified on endoscopy, a PPI is the initial treatment of choice. Diagnostic testing should be reserved for patients who exhibit warning signs (i.e., weight loss, dysphagia, gastrointestinal bleeding) and patients who are at risk for complications of esophagitis (i.e., esophageal stricture formation, Barrett's esophagus, adenocarcinoma). Antireflux surgery, including open and laparoscopic versions of Nissen fundoplication, is an alternative treatment in patients who have chronic reflux with recalcitrant symptoms. Newer endoscopic modalities, including the Stretta and endocinch procedures, are less invasive and have fewer complications than antireflux surgery, but response rates are lower.
Symptomatic Treatment and H. pylori Eradication Therapy for Nonulcer Dyspepsia - Cochrane for Clinicians
Evaluation of Epigastric Discomfort and Management of Dyspepsia and GERD - Practice Guidelines
Comparison of Short-Term Treatments for GERD - Cochrane for Clinicians
Choosing One PPI Treatment Over Another - AFP Journal Club