ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal
Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurism - Putting Prevention into Practice
Imaging of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms - Article
ABSTRACT: Given the high rate of morbidity and mortality associated with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), accurate diagnosis and preoperative evaluation are essential for improved patient outcomes. Ultrasonography is the standard method of screening and monitoring AAAs that have not ruptured. In the past, aortography was commonly used for preoperative planning in the repair of AAAs. More recently, computed tomography (CT) has largely replaced older, more invasive methods. Recent advances in CT imaging technology, such as helical CT and CT angiography, offer significant advantages over traditional CT. These methods allow for more rapid scans and can produce three-dimensional images of the AAA and important adjacent vascular structures. Use of endovascular stent grafts has increased recently and is less invasive for the repair of AAAs in selected cases. Aortography and CT angiography can precisely determine the size and surrounding anatomy of the AAA to identify appropriate candidates for the use of endovascular stent grafts. Helical CT and CT angiography represent an exciting future in the preoperative evaluation of AAAs. However, this technology is not the standard of care because of the lack of widespread availability, the cost associated with obtaining new equipment, and the lack of universal protocols necessary for acquisition and reconstruction of these images.
Vascular Surgery: An Update - Article
ABSTRACT: Caring for patients with vascular illnesses has become increasingly more complex and has changed dramatically over the past 10 years, with a widening array of diagnostic and treatment options. Carotid artery stenting has the potential to become a viable alternative to open surgery in high-risk patients with carotid artery disease (i.e., patients older than 80 years and those with previous neck surgery or irradiation, contralateral carotid artery occlusion, contralateral laryngeal nerve injury, or angina). However, the effectiveness of carotid artery stenting as a therapy is still being evaluated in randomized trials. Endovascular aortic aneurysm repair is an option for patients who desire or require a less invasive modality and who have suitable aortic anatomy. Surgical reconstruction remains the standard treatment for ischemic rest pain and tissue loss (critical limb ischemia). Balloon angioplasty and stenting are treatment options for peripheral vascular disease, although treatment is dependent on the arterial segment or segments involved.
Predicting Postoperative Pulmonary Complications - Point-of-Care Guides
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm - Article
ABSTRACT: Most abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are asymptomatic, not detectable on physical examination, and silent until discovered during radiologic testing for other reasons. Tobacco use, hypertension, a family history of AAA, and male sex are clinical risk factors for the development of an aneurysm. Ultrasound, the preferred method of screening, is cost-effective in high-risk patients. Repair is indicated when the aneurysm becomes greater than 5.5 cm in diameter or grows more than 0.6 to 0.8 cm per year. Asymptomatic patients with an AAA should be medically optimized before repair, including institution of beta blockade. Symptomatic aneurysms present with back, abdominal, buttock, groin, testicular, or leg pain and require urgent surgical attention. Rupture of an AAA involves complete loss of aortic wall integrity and is a surgical emergency requiring immediate repair. The mortality rate approaches 90 percent if rupture occurs outside the hospital. Although open surgical repair has been performed safely, an endovascular approach is used in select patients if the aortic and iliac anatomy are amenable. Two large randomized controlled trials did not find any improvement in mortality rate or morbidity with this approach compared with conventional open surgical repair.