ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Treatment of Prostatitis - Article
ABSTRACT: The term prostatitis is applied to a series of disorders, ranging from acute bacterial infection to chronic pain syndromes, in which the prostate gland is inflamed. Patients present with a variety of symptoms, including urinary obstruction, fever, myalgias, decreased libido or impotence, painful ejaculation and low-back and perineal pain. Physical examination often fails to clarify the cause of the pain. Cultures and microscopic examination of urine and prostatic secretions before and after prostatic massage may help differentiate prostatitis caused by infection from prostatitis with other causes. Because the rate of occult infection is high, a therapeutic trial of antibiotics is often in order even when patients do not appear to have bacterial prostatitis. If the patient responds to therapy, antibiotics are continued for at least three to four weeks, although some men require treatment for several months. A patient who does not respond might be evaluated for chronic nonbacterial prostatitis, in which nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, alpha-blocking agents, anticholinergic agents or other therapies may provide symptomatic relief.
Chronic Pelvic Pain in Women - Article
ABSTRACT: The etiology of chronic pelvic pain in women is poorly understood. Although a specific diagnosis is not found in the majority of cases, some common diagnoses include endometriosis, adhesions, irritable bowel syndrome, and interstitial cystitis. The initial history and physical examination can narrow the diagnostic possibilities, guide any subsequent evaluation, and rule out malignancy or significant systemic disease. If the initial evaluation does not reveal a specific diagnosis, a limited laboratory and ultrasound evaluation can clarify the diagnosis, as well as rule out serious disease and reassure the patient. Few treatment modalities have demonstrated benefit for the symptoms of chronic pelvic pain. The evidence supports the use of oral medroxyprogesterone, goserelin, adhesiolysis for severe adhesions, and a multidisciplinary treatment approach for patients without a specific diagnosis. Less supporting evidence is available for oral analgesics, combined oral contraceptive pills, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, intramuscular medroxyprogesterone, trigger point and botulinum A toxin injections, neuromodulative therapies, and hysterectomy.
Evaluation of Acute Pelvic Pain in Women - Article
ABSTRACT: Diagnosis of pelvic pain in women can be challenging because many symptoms and signs are insensitive and nonspecific. As the first priority, urgent life-threatening conditions (e.g., ectopic pregnancy, appendicitis, ruptured ovarian cyst) and fertility-threatening conditions (e.g., pelvic inflammatory disease, ovarian torsion) must be considered. A careful history focusing on pain characteristics, review of systems, and gynecologic, sexual, and social history, in addition to physical examination helps narrow the differential diagnosis. The most common urgent causes of pelvic pain are pelvic inflammatory disease, ruptured ovarian cyst, and appendicitis; however, many other diagnoses in the differential may mimic these conditions, and imaging is often needed. Transvaginal ultrasonography should be the initial imaging test because of its sensitivities across most etiologies and its lack of radiation exposure. A high index of suspicion should be maintained for pelvic inflammatory disease when other etiologies are ruled out, because the presentation is variable and the prevalence is high. Multiple studies have shown that 20 to 50 percent of women presenting with pelvic pain have pelvic inflammatory disease. Adolescents and pregnant and postpartum women require unique considerations.
ABSTRACT: Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome affects more than 1 million persons in the United States, but the cause remains unknown. Most patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome are women with symptoms of suprapubic pelvic and/or genital area pain, dyspareunia, urinary urgency and frequency, and nocturia. It is important to exclude other conditions such as infections. Tests and tools commonly used to diagnose interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome include specific questionnaires developed to assess the condition, the potassium sensitivity test, the anesthetic bladder challenge, and cystoscopy with hydrodistension. Treatment options include oral medications, intravesical instillations, and dietary changes and supplements. Oral medications include pentosan polysulfate sodium, antihistamines, tricyclic antidepressants, and immune modulators. Intravesical medications include dimethyl sulfoxide, pentosan polysulfate sodium, and heparin. Pentosan polysulfate sodium is the only oral therapy and dimethyl sulfoxide is the only intravesical therapy with U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for the treatment of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome. To date, clinical trials of individual therapies have been limited in size, quality, and duration of follow-up. Studies of combination or multimodal therapies are lacking.
Communicating Effectively with a Patient Who Has a Somatization Disorder - Curbside Consultation
ABSTRACT: Endometriosis, which affects up to 10 percent of reproductive-aged women, is the presence of endometrial tissue outside of the uterine cavity. It is more common in women with pelvic pain or infertility (25 to 40 percent and 70 to 90 percent, respectively). Some women with endometriosis are asymptomatic, whereas others present with symptoms such as debilitating pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, and decreased fertility. Diagnosis of endometriosis in primary care is predominantly clinical. Initial treatment includes common agents used for primary dysmenorrhea, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, combination estrogen/progestin contraceptives, or progestin-only contraceptives. There is some evidence that these agents are helpful and have few adverse effects. Referral to a gynecologist is necessary if symptoms persist or the patient is unable to become pregnant. Laparoscopy is commonly used to confirm the diagnosis before additional treatments are pursued. Further treatments include gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues, danazol, or surgical removal of ectopic endometrial tissue. These interventions may control symptoms more effectively than initial treatments, but they can have significant adverse effects and limits on duration of therapy.