ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Soft Tissue Infections
ABSTRACT: Patients with necrotizing soft tissue infections often present initially to family physicians. These infections must be detected and treated rapidly to prevent loss of limb or a fatal outcome. Unfortunately, necrotizing soft tissue infections have no pathognomonic signs. Patients may present with some evidence of cellulitis, vesicles, bullae, edema, crepitus, erythema, and fever. They also may complain of pain that seems out of proportion to the physical findings; as the infection progresses, their pain may decrease. Magnetic resonance imaging and laboratory findings such as acidosis, anemia, electrolyte abnormalities, coagulopathy, and an elevated white blood cell count may provide clues to the diagnosis. No single organism or combination of organisms is consistently responsible for necrotizing soft tissue infections. Most infections are polymicrobial, with both anaerobic and aerobic bacteria frequently present. Fungal infections also have been reported. Generally, bacterial and toxin-related effects converge to cause skin necrosis, shock, and multisystem organ failure. Aggressive debridement of infected tissues is critical to management. Antimicrobial therapy is important but remains secondary to the removal of diseased and necrotic tissues.
ABSTRACT: The increasing incidence of skin and soft tissue infections requires family physicians to be familiar with the management of these conditions. Evidence of systemic infection, such as fever, tachycardia, and hypotension, is an indication for inpatient management. Urgent surgical referral is imperative for those with life-threatening or rapidly advancing infections. In patients with uncomplicated abscesses measuring less than 5 cm in diameter, surgical drainage alone is the primary therapeutic intervention. Wound irrigation using tap water has similar outcomes as irrigation using sterile water. When antimicrobials are indicated, choice of agents depends on local resistance and susceptibility patterns. In settings where suspicion of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is low, beta-lactam antibiotics are the first-line treatments for uncomplicated skin and soft tissue infections without focal coalescence or trauma. When empiric coverage for MRSA is indicated and the infection is uncomplicated, oral agents, such as tetracyclines, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and clindamycin, are preferred. Vancomycin is the first-line agent for MRSA in hospitalized patients, and newer agents, such as linezolid, daptomycin, and tigecycline, should be reserved for patients who do not respond to or cannot tolerate vancomycin therapy. There are insufficient data to support eradicating the carrier state in patients with MRSA or their contacts with nasal mupirocin or antibacterial body washes. Standard infection-control precautions, including proper and frequent handwashing, are a mainstay of MRSA prevention.