Items in AFP with MESH term: Serotonin Agents
ABSTRACT: Medications for treating alcohol dependence primarily have been adjunctive interventions, and only three medications--disulfiram, naltrexone, and acamprosate--are approved for this indication by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Disulfiram, an aversive agent that has been used for more than 40 years, has significant adverse effects and compliance difficulties with no clear evidence that it increases abstinence rates, decreases relapse rates, or reduces cravings. In contrast, naltrexone, an anticraving agent, reduces relapse rates and cravings and increases abstinence rates. Acamprosate also reduces relapse rates and increases abstinence rates. Serotonergic and anticonvulsant agents promise to play more of a role in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Although not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for this indication, the anticonvulsant topiramate and several serotonergic agents (e.g., fluoxetine, ondansetron) have been shown in recent studies to increase abstinence rates and decrease drinking.
ABSTRACT: Patients receiving antidepressant monotherapy may be partially or totally resistant to treatment in 10 to 30 percent of cases. In patients who have experienced only partial treatment results, the clinician should first consider optimizing antidepressant dosage or lengthening therapy. Antidepressant drug substitution should generally be reserved for use in patients who haven't responded at all (nonresponders). Combining two or more antidepressants is generally not recommended, as this approach may obscure adequate monotherapy evaluation and lead to significant adverse effects or drug-drug interactions. Use of electroconvulsive therapy is recommended in patients with psychotic and severe refractory depression. Augmentation therapy is often efficacious in patients who exhibit a partial antidepressant response. Lithium and thyroid hormone have been the most extensively studied augmentative agents but, more recently, pindolol and buspirone have also been used for this purpose.
Valve Disease and Diet Pills-Where Do We Stand? - Editorials