ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Ventricular Dysfunction, Right
ABSTRACT: Pulmonary embolism is a disorder that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Right-sided heart failure and recurrent pulmonary embolism are the main causes of death associated with pulmonary embolism in the first two weeks after the embolic event. Thrombolysis is a potentially lifesaving therapy when used in conjunction with standard anticoagulation. However, it has significant side effects and must therefore be used with caution. Indications for thrombolysis are not well defined and are thus controversial. The only current absolute indication is massive pulmonary embolism with hypotension. Other potential indications include right heart dysfunction, recurrent pulmonary embolism and the prevention of pulmonary hypertension. However, no evidence exists to show benefit of thrombolytic therapy over standard anticoagulation therapy for recurrent pulmonary embolism, mortality or chronic complications. Bleeding is the most common complication of thrombolysis and may be fatal.
ABSTRACT: The principal cause of right ventricular infarction is atherosclerotic proximal occlusion of the right coronary artery. Proximal occlusion of this artery leads to electrocardiographically identifiable right-heart ischemia and an increased risk of death in the presence of acute inferior infarction. Clinical recognition begins with the ventricular electrocardiographic manifestations: inferior left ventricular ischemia (ST segment elevation in leads II, III and aVF), with or without accompanying abnormal Q waves and right ventricular ischemia (ST segment elevation in right chest leads V3R through V6R and ST segment depression in anterior leads V2 through V4). Associated findings may include atrial infarction (PR segment displacement, elevation or depression in leads II, III and aVF), symptomatic sinus bradycardia, atrioventricular node block and atrial fibrillation. Hemodynamic effects of right ventricular dysfunction may include failure of the right ventricle to pump sufficient blood through the pulmonary circuit to the left ventricle, with consequent systemic hypotension. Management is directed toward recognition of right ventricular infarction, reperfusion, volume loading, rate and rhythm control, and inotropic support.