Items in AFP with MESH term: Nutritional Support
ABSTRACT: Newborn infants may be transferred to a special care nursery because of conditions such as prematurity (gestation less than 37 weeks), prolonged resuscitation, respiratory distress, cyanosis, and jaundice, and for evaluation of neonatal sepsis. Newborn infants' core temperature should be kept above 36.4 degrees C (97.5 degrees F). Nutritional requirements are usually 100 to 120 kcal per kg per day to achieve an average weight gain of 150 to 200 g (5 to 7 oz) per week. Standard infant formulas containing 20 kcal per mL and maternal breast milk may be inadequate for premature infants, who require special formulas or fortifiers that provide a higher calorie content (up to 24 kcal per mL). Intravenous fluids should be given when infants are not being fed enterally, such as those with tachypnea greater than 60 breaths per minute. Hypoglycemia can be asymptomatic in large-for-gestational-age infants and infants of mothers who have diabetes. A hyperoxia test can be used to differentiate between pulmonary and cardiac causes of hypoxemia. The potential for neonatal sepsis increases with the presence of risk factors such as prolonged rupture of membranes and maternal colonization with group B streptococcus. Jaundice, especially on the first day of life, should be evaluated and treated. If the infant does not progressively improve in the special care nursery, transfer to a tertiary care unit may be necessary.
Specialized Nutrition Support - Article
ABSTRACT: Specialized nutrition support should be offered to patients who are malnourished or at risk of becoming malnour- ished when it would benefit patient outcomes or quality of life. Improving the nutritional value of ingested food and tailoring intake to the patient’s preferences, abilities, and schedule should be the first measures in addressing nutritional needs. When these interventions alone are insufficient to meet nutritional requirements, oral nutritional supplements should be considered. Nutritional status should be evaluated in patients before specialized nutrition sup- port is considered. Enteral nutrition is used when patients have a functional gastrointestinal tract but are unable to safely swallow. Although a variety of enteral formulas are available, evidence for choosing a specific formula is often lacking. Parenteral nutrition should be used only when enteral nutrition is not feasible. There are no known benefits of parenteral nutrition over the enteral route, and the risk of serious complications is much greater with parenteral nutrition. Even when the parenteral route is necessary, some enteral nutrition is beneficial when possible. Specialized nutrition support can provide an effective bridge until patients are able to return to normal food and, in rare cases, may be continued as long-term home enteral or parenteral nutrition. Specialized nutrition support is not obligatory and can be harmful in cases of futile care and at the end of life.