Items in AFP with MESH term: Risk Assessment

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Management of Acute Renal Failure - Article

ABSTRACT: Acute renal failure is present in 1 to 5 percent of patients at hospital admission and affects up to 20 percent of patients in intensive care units. The condition has prerenal, intrarenal, and postrenal causes, with prerenal conditions accounting for 60 to 70 percent of cases. The cause of acute renal failure usually can be identified through an appropriate history, a physical examination, and selected laboratory tests. The initial laboratory evaluation should include urinalysis, a determination of the fractional excretion of sodium, a blood urea nitrogen to creatinine ratio, and a basic metabolic panel. Management includes correction of fluid and electrolyte levels; avoidance of nephrotoxins; and kidney replacement therapy, when appropriate. Several recent studies support the use of acetylcysteine for the prevention of acute renal failure in patients undergoing various procedures. The relative risk of serum creatinine elevation was 0.11 in patients undergoing radiocontrast-media procedures (absolute risk reduction: 19 percent) and 0.33 in patients undergoing coronary angiography (absolute risk reduction: 8 percent). In patients pretreated with sodium bicarbonate before radiocontrast-media procedures, the relative risk of serum creatinine elevation was 0.13 and the absolute risk reduction was 11.9 percent. Dopamine and diuretics have been shown to be ineffective in ameliorating the course of acute renal failure.

Unstable Angina and Non-ST- Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction: Part I. Initial Evaluation and Management, and Hospital Care - Article

ABSTRACT: Each year, more than 1 million patients are admitted to U.S. hospitals because of unstable angina and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (UA/NSTEMI). To help standardize the assessment and treatment of these patients, the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association convened a task force to formulate a management guideline. This guideline, which was published in 2000 and updated in 2002, highlights recent medical advances and is a practical tool to help physicians provide medical care for patients with UA/NSTEMI. Management of suspected UA/NSTEMI has four components: initial evaluation and management; hospital care; coronary revascularization; and hospital discharge and post-hospital care. Part I of this two-part article discusses the first two components of management. During the initial evaluation, the history, physical examination, electrocardiogram, and cardiac biomarkers are used to determine the likelihood that the patient has UA/NSTEMI and to aid in risk assessment when the diagnosis is established. Hospital care consists of appropriate initial triage and monitoring. Medical treatment includes anti-ischemic therapy (oxygen, nitroglycerin, beta blocker), antiplatelet therapy (aspirin, clopidogrel, platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor), and antithrombotic therapy (heparin, low-molecular-weight heparin).

Management of Pregnancy Beyond 40 Weeks' Gestation - Article

ABSTRACT: A post-term or prolonged pregnancy is one that reaches 42 weeks' gestation; approximately 5 to 10 percent of pregnancies are post-term. Studies have shown a reduction in the number of pregnancies considered post-term when early ultrasound dating is performed. Maternal and fetal risks increase with gestational age, but the management of otherwise low-risk prolonged pregnancies is controversial. Antenatal surveillance with fetal kick counts, nonstress testing, amniotic fluid index measurement, and biophysical profiles is used, although no data show that monitoring improves outcomes. Studies show a reduction in the rate of cesarean deliveries and possibly in neonatal mortality with a policy of routine labor induction at 41 weeks' gestation.

Prevention of Falls in Older Patients - Article

ABSTRACT: Falls are one of the most common geriatric syndromes threatening the independence of older persons. Between 30 and 40 percent of community-dwelling adults older than 65 years fall each year, and the rates are higher for nursing home residents. Falls are associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and nursing home placement. Most falls have multiple causes. Risk factors for falls include muscle weakness, a history of falls, use of four or more prescription medications, use of an assistive device, arthritis, depression, age older than 80 years, and impairments in gait, balance, cognition, vision, and activities of daily living. Physicians caring for older patients should ask about any falls that have occurred in the past year. Assessment should include evaluating the circumstances of the fall and a complete history and physical examination, looking for potential risk factors. The most effective fall prevention strategies are multifactorial interventions targeting identified risk factors, exercises for muscle strengthening combined with balance training, and withdrawal of psychotropic medication. Home hazard assessment and modification by a health professional also is helpful.

Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis: An Overview - Article

ABSTRACT: In the 1980s, after a steady decline during preceding decades, there was a resurgence in the rate of tuberculosis in the United States that coincided with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic. Disease patterns since have changed, with a higher incidence of disseminated and extrapulmonary disease now found. Extrapulmonary sites of infection commonly include lymph nodes, pleura, and osteoarticular areas, although any organ can be involved. The diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis can be elusive, necessitating a high index of suspicion. Physicians should obtain a thorough history focusing on risk behaviors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and tuberculosis. Antituberculous therapy can minimize morbidity and mortality but may need to be initiated empirically. A negative smear for acid-fast bacillus, a lack of granulomas on histopathology, and failure to culture Mycobacterium tuberculosis do not exclude the diagnosis. Novel diagnostic modalities such as adenosine deaminase levels and polymerase chain reaction can be useful in certain forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. In general, the same regimens are used to treat pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis, and responses to antituberculous therapy are similar in patients with HIV infection and in those without. Treatment duration may need to be extended for central nervous system and skeletal tuberculosis, depending on drug resistance, and in patients who have a delayed or incomplete response. Adjunctive corticosteroids may be beneficial in patients with tuberculous meningitis, tuberculous pericarditis, or miliary tuberculosis with refractory hypoxemia.

Diagnosis and Management of Ectopic Pregnancy - Article

ABSTRACT: Ectopic pregnancy is a high-risk condition that occurs in 1.9 percent of reported pregnancies. The condition is the leading cause of pregnancy-related death in the first trimester. If a woman of reproductive age presents with abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding, syncope, or hypotension, the physician should perform a pregnancy test. If the patient is pregnant, the physician should perform a work-up to detect possible ectopic or ruptured ectopic pregnancy. Prompt ultrasound evaluation is key in diagnosing ectopic pregnancy. Equivocal ultrasound results should be combined with quantitative beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin levels. If a patient has a beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin level of 1,500 mIU per mL or greater, but the transvaginal ultrasonography does not show an intrauterine gestational sac, ectopic pregnancy should be suspected. Diagnostic uterine curettage may be appropriate in patients who are hemodynamically stable and whose beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin levels are not increasing as expected. Appropriate treatment for patients with nonruptured ectopic pregnancy may include expectant management, medical management with methotrexate, or surgery. Expectant management is appropriate only when beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin levels are low and declining. Initial levels determine the success of medical treatment. Surgical treatment is appropriate if ruptured ectopic pregnancy is suspected and if the patient is hemodynamically unstable.

Kawasaki Disease: Summary of the American Heart Association Guidelines - Article

ABSTRACT: Kawasaki disease is an acute vasculitis of childhood that predominantly affects the coronary arteries. The etiology of Kawasaki disease remains unknown, although an infectious agent is strongly suspected based on clinical and epidemiologic features. A genetic predisposition is also likely, based on varying incidences among ethnic groups, with higher rates in Asians. Symptoms include fever, conjunctival injection, erythema of the lips and oral mucosa, rash, and cervical lymphadenopathy. Some children with Kawasaki disease develop coronary artery aneurysms or ectasia, ischemic heart disease, and sudden death. Kawasaki disease is the leading cause of acquired heart disease among children in developed countries. This article provides a summary of the diagnostic and treatment guidelines published by the American Heart Association.

Preventing Cardiovascular Disease in Women - Article

ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the primary cause of death in women for almost a century, and more women than men have died of CVD every year since 1984. Although CVD incidence can be reduced by adherence to a heart-healthy lifestyle and detection and treatment of major risk factors, preventive recommendations have not been consistently or optimally applied to women. The American Heart Association guidelines for CVD prevention in women provide physicians with a clear plan for assessment and treatment of CVD risk and personalization of treatment recommendations. The emphasis of preventive efforts has shifted away from treatment of individual CVD risk factors in isolation toward assessment of a woman's overall or "global" CVD risk. In addition to accounting for the presence or absence of preexisting coronary heart disease or its equivalents (e.g., diabetes, chronic kidney disease), cardiovascular risk can be further calculated with the Framingham risk score, which is based on age, sex, smoking history, and lipid and blood pressure levels. Intervention intensity and treatment goals are tailored to overall risk, with those at highest risk receiving the most intense risk-lowering interventions. Women at high risk for CVD and without contraindications should receive aspirin, beta blockers, and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker in addition to pharmacologic therapy for hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes. Women who already are at optimal or low risk for CVD should be encouraged to maintain or further improve their healthy lifestyle practices. Optimal application of these preventive practices significantly reduces the burden of death and disability caused by heart attack and stroke in women.

Minimizing Adverse Drug Events in Older Patients - Article

ABSTRACT: Adverse drug events are common in older patients, particularly in those taking at least five medications, but such events are predictable and often preventable. A rational approach to prescribing in older adults integrates physiologic changes of aging with knowledge of pharmacology. Focusing on specific outcomes, such as the prompt recognition of adverse drug events, allows the family physician to approach prescribing cautiously and confidently. Physicians need to find ways to streamline the medical regimen, such as periodically reviewing all medications in relation to the Beers criteria and avoiding new prescriptions to counteract adverse drug reactions. The incorporation of computerized alerts and a multidisciplinary approach can reduce adverse drug events.

Evaluating Fever of Unidentifiable Source in Young Children - Article

ABSTRACT: Most children will have been evaluated for a febrile illness by 36 months of age. Although the majority will have a self-limited viral illness, studies done before the use of Haemophilus influenzae type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccines showed that approximately 10 percent of children younger than 36 months without evident sources of fever had occult bacteremia and serious bacterial infection. More recent studies have found lower rates of bacterial infection (1.6 to 1.8 percent). Any infant younger than 29 days and any child that appears toxic should undergo a complete sepsis work-up. However, nontoxic-appearing children one to 36 months of age, who have a fever with no apparent source and who have received the appropriate vaccinations, could undergo screening laboratory analysis and be sent home with close follow-up. Empiric intramuscular antibiotics are suggested for some children; however, cerebrospinal fluid studies should be obtained first. Because immunizations have recently decreased infection rates for S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae type b, the recommendations for evaluation and treatment of febrile children are evolving and could involve fewer tests and less-presumptive treatment in the future. A cautious approach should still be taken based on the potential for adverse consequences of unrecognized and untreated serious bacterial infection.

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