Items in AFP with MESH term: Risk Assessment
Risks and Benefits of Pacifiers - Article
ABSTRACT: Physicians are often asked for guidance about pacifier use in children, especially regarding the benefits and risks, and when to appropriately wean a child. The benefits of pacifier use include analgesic effects, shorter hospital stays for preterm infants, and a reduction in the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. Pacifiers have been studied and recommended for pain relief in newborns and infants undergoing common, minor procedures in the emergency department (e.g., heel sticks, immunizations, venipuncture). The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that parents consider offering pacifiers to infants one month and older at the onset of sleep to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. Potential complications of pacifier use, particularly with prolonged use, include a negative effect on breastfeeding, dental malocclusion, and otitis media. Adverse dental effects can be evident after two years of age, but mainly after four years. The American Academy of Family Physicians recommends that mothers be educated about pacifier use in the immediate postpartum period to avoid difficulties with breastfeeding. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Family Physicians recommend weaning children from pacifiers in the second six months of life to prevent otitis media. Pacifier use should not be actively discouraged and may be especially beneficial in the first six months of life.
Screening for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Recommendation Statement - U.S. Preventive Services Task Force
ABSTRACT: Solitary pulmonary nodules are common radiologic findings, typically discovered incidentally through chest radiography or computed tomography of the neck, chest, and abdomen. Primary care physicians must decide how to pursue an evaluation of a nodule once it has been identified. The differential diagnosis for pulmonary nodules includes benign and malignant causes. Diameter of 8 mm or more, "ground-glass" density, irregular borders, and doubling time between one month and one year suggest malignancy. The American College of Chest Physicians recently released guidelines for the evaluation of solitary pulmonary nodules, based primarily on nodule size and patient risk factors for cancer. Algorithms for the evaluation of lesions smaller than 8 mm and those 8 mm or greater recommend different imaging follow-up regimens. Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography can be used to aid decision making when cancer pretest probability and imaging results are discordant. Any patient with evidence of a nodule with notable growth during follow-up should undergo biopsy for identification. The rationale for closely monitoring an incidentally found pulmonary lesion is that detection and treatment of early lung cancer might lead to decreased morbidity and mortality.
Weighing the Risks and Benefits of Clinical Interventions - Improving Patient Care
Diagnosing Pulmonary Embolism - Improving Patient Care
Estimating the Risks of Coronary Angioplasty - Improving Patient Care
Universal Newborn Hearing Screening and Beyond - Editorials
AAP Develops Guidlelines for Early Detection of Dislocated Hips - Practice Guidelines