ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
ABSTRACT: Carotid endarterectomy has proved to be beneficial in the prevention of stroke in selected patients. The procedure is indicated in symptomatic patients with carotid-territory transient ischemic attacks or minor strokes who have carotid artery stenosis of 70 to 99 percent. With a low surgical risk, carotid endarterectomy provides modest benefit in symptomatic patients with carotid artery stenosis of 50 to 69 percent. Platelet antiaggregants and risk factor modification are recommended in symptomatic patients with less than 50 percent stenosis. In the Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis Study, carotid endarterectomy was beneficial in patients who had asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis of 60 percent or greater and whose general health made them good candidates for elective surgery, provided that the arteriographic and surgical complication rates were low. However, in asymptomatic patients, surgery reduced the absolute risk of stroke by only 1 percent per year.
Cancer Screening Guidelines - Article
ABSTRACT: Numerous medical organizations have developed cancer screening guidelines. Faced with the broad, and sometimes conflicting, range of recommendations for cancer screening, family physicians must determine the most reasonable and up-to-date method of screening. Major medical organizations have generally achieved consensus on screening guidelines for breast, cervical and colorectal cancer. For breast cancer screening in women ages 50 to 70, clinical breast examination and mammography are generally recommended every one or two years, depending on the medical organization. For cervical cancer screening, most organizations recommend a Papanicolaou test and pelvic examination at least every three years in patients between 20 and 65 years of age. Annual fecal occult blood testing along with flexible sigmoidoscopy at five-year to 10-year intervals is the standard recommendation for colorectal cancer screening in patients older than 50 years. Screening for prostate cancer remains a matter of debate. Some organizations recommend digital rectal examination and a serum prostate-specific antigen test for men older than 50 years, while others do not. In the absence of compelling evidence to indicate a high risk of endometrial cancer, lung cancer, oral cancer and ovarian cancer, almost no medical organizations have developed cancer screening guidelines for these types of cancer.
Methadone Therapy for Opioid Dependence - Article
ABSTRACT: The 1999 Federal regulations extend the treatment options of methadone-maintained opioid-dependent patients from specialized clinics to office-based opioid therapy (OBOT). OBOT allows primary care physicians to coordinate methadone therapy in this group with ongoing medical care. This patient group tends to be poorly understood and underserved. Methadone maintenance therapy is the most widely known and well-researched treatment for opioid dependency. Goals of therapy are to prevent abstinence syndrome, reduce narcotic cravings and block the euphoric effects of illicit opioid use. In the first phase of methadone treatment, appropriately selected patients are tapered to adequate steady-state dosing. Once they are stabilized on a satisfactory dosage, it is often possible to address their other chronic medical and psychiatric conditions. The maintenance phase can be used as a long-term therapy until the patient demonstrates the qualities required for successful detoxification. Patients who abuse narcotics have an increased risk for human immunodeficiency virus infection, hepatitis, tuberculosis and other conditions contributing to increased morbidity and mortality. Short- or long-term pain management problems and surgical needs are also common concerns in opioid-dependent patients and are generally treatable in conjunction with methadone maintenance.
ABSTRACT: Pain, which is often inadequately treated, accompanies the more than 23 million surgical procedures performed each year and may persist long after tissue heals. Preemptive analgesia, an evolving clinical concept, involves the introduction of an analgesic regimen before the onset of noxious stimuli, with the goal of preventing sensitization of the nervous system to subsequent stimuli that could amplify pain. Surgery offers the most promising setting for preemptive analgesia because the timing of noxious stimuli is known. When adequate drug doses are administered to appropriately selected patients before surgery, intravenous opiates, local anesthetic infiltration, nerve block, subarachnoid block and epidural block offer benefits that can be observed as long as one year after surgery. The most effective preemptive analgesic regimens are those that are capable of limiting sensitization of the nervous system throughout the entire perioperative period.
ACCF/AHA Update Peripheral Artery Disease Management Guideline - Practice Guidelines
LASIK: A Primer for Family Physicians - Article
ABSTRACT: Surgical correction of vision is becoming increasingly popular. Laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is the most popular method of corneal refractive surgery. LASIK is usually limited to adults who have stable refraction. Contraindications include the use of certain medications, conditions that impair healing, abnormal corneal anatomy, and inadequate tearing. Patients who cannot tolerate persistent eye dryness or who engage in activities with a risk of eye trauma should avoid LASIK. Possible complications include diffuse lamellar keratitis, epithelial ingrowth, and fap complications. Almost all patients achieve uncorrected visual acuity of at least 20/40, but higher degrees of preoperative myopia may require a second operation. Long-term data on safety and stability are just becoming available. LASIK appears to be safe and effective, with only a small tendency for increased myopia in the first few years after surgery.
ABSTRACT: An estimated one fourth of persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are not aware they are infected. Early diagnosis of HIV has the potential to ensure optimal outcomes for infected persons and to limit the spread of the virus. Important barriers to testing among physicians include insufficient time, reimbursement issues, and lack of patient acceptance. Current HIV testing guidelines address many of these barriers by making the testing process more streamlined and less stigmatizing. The opt-out consent process has been shown to improve test acceptance. Formal pretest counseling and written consent are no longer recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Nevertheless, pretest discussions provide an opportunity to give information about HIV, address fears of discrimination, and identify ongoing high-risk activities. With increased HIV screening in the primary care setting, more persons with HIV could be identified earlier, receive timely and appropriate care, and get treatment to prevent clinical progression and transmission.
ACIP Releases Guidelines on the Prevention and Control of Influenza - Practice Guidelines
VBAC: Protecting Patients, Defending Doctors - Editorials
Clinical Briefs - Clinical Briefs