ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
ABSTRACT: The exercise stress test is a useful screening tool for the detection of significant coronary artery disease. Documentation of the patient's symptoms, medications, past and current significant illnesses, and usual level of physical activity helps the physician determine if an exercise stress test is appropriate. The physical examination must include consideration of the patient's ability to walk and exercise, along with any signs of acute or serious disease that may affect the test results or the patient's ability to perform the test. The test report contains comments about the maximal heart rate and level of exercise achieved, and symptoms, arrhythmias, electrocardiographic changes and vital signs during exercise. This report allows the clinician to determine if the test was "maximal" or "submaximal." The quality of the test and its performance add to the validity of the results. The conclusion section of the test report indicates whether the test results were "positive," "negative," "equivocal" or "uninterpretable." Further testing may be indicated to obtain optional information about coronary artery disease and ischemic risk if the test results were equivocal or uninterpretable.
ABSTRACT: Inguinal and femoral hernias are the most common conditions for which primary care physicians refer patients for surgical management. Hernias usually present as swelling accompanied by pain or a dragging sensation in the groin. Most hernias can be diagnosed based on the history and clinical examination, but ultrasonography may be useful in differentiating a hernia from other causes of groin swelling. Surgical repair is usually advised because of the danger of incarceration and strangulation, particularly with femoral hernias. Three major types of open repair are currently used, and laparoscopic techniques are also employed. The choice of technique depends on several factors, including the type of hernia, anesthetic considerations, cost, period of postoperative disability and the surgeon's expertise. Following initial herniorrhaphy, complication and recurrence rates are generally low. Laparoscopic techniques make it possible for patients to return to normal activities more quickly, but they are more costly than open procedures. In addition, they require general anesthesia, and the long-term hernia recurrence rate with these procedures is unknown.
Adult Circumcision - Article
ABSTRACT: Adult circumcision can be performed under local or regional anesthesia. Medical indications for this procedure include phimosis, paraphimosis, recurrent balanitis and posthitis (inflammation of the prepuce). Nonmedical reasons may be social, cultural, personal or religious. The procedure is commonly performed using either the dorsal slit or the sleeve technique. The dorsal slit is especially useful in patients who have phimosis. The sleeve technique may provide better control of bleeding in patients with large subcutaneous veins. A dorsal penile nerve block, with or without a circumferential penile block, provides adequate anesthesia. Informed consent must be obtained. Possible complications of adult circumcision include infection, bleeding, poor cosmetic results and a change in sensation during intercourse.
ABSTRACT: Lowering cholesterol can reduce the incidence of coronary heart disease. Treating hypertension reduces overall mortality and is most effective in reducing the risk of coronary heart disease in older patients. Smoking cessation reduces the level of risk to that of nonsmokers within about three years of cessation. Aspirin is likely to be an effective means of primary prevention, but a group in whom treatment is appropriate has yet to be defined. Evidence that supplementation with vitamin A or C reduces the risk of coronary heart disease is inadequate; the data for use of vitamin E are inconclusive. Epidemiologic evidence is sufficient to recommend that most persons increase their levels of physical activity. Lowering homocysteine levels through increased folate intake is a promising but unproven primary prevention strategy. Hormone replacement therapy was associated with reduced incidence of coronary heart disease in epidemiologic studies but was not effective in a secondary prevention trial.
Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Updates Recommendations for the Prevention of Varicella - Special Medical Reports
ABSTRACT: Carotid endarterectomy has proved to be beneficial in the prevention of stroke in selected patients. The procedure is indicated in symptomatic patients with carotid-territory transient ischemic attacks or minor strokes who have carotid artery stenosis of 70 to 99 percent. With a low surgical risk, carotid endarterectomy provides modest benefit in symptomatic patients with carotid artery stenosis of 50 to 69 percent. Platelet antiaggregants and risk factor modification are recommended in symptomatic patients with less than 50 percent stenosis. In the Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis Study, carotid endarterectomy was beneficial in patients who had asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis of 60 percent or greater and whose general health made them good candidates for elective surgery, provided that the arteriographic and surgical complication rates were low. However, in asymptomatic patients, surgery reduced the absolute risk of stroke by only 1 percent per year.
Who Should Operate in Carotid Disease? - Editorials
American Thoracic Society Updates Statement on Pulmonary Rehabilitation - Practice Guidelines
Tympanocentesis: To Tap or Not to Tap - Editorials
Guidelines on Migraine: Part 3. Recommendations for Individual Drugs - Practice Guidelines