ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Endometrial Biopsy - Article
ABSTRACT: Endometrial biopsy is an office procedure that serves as a helpful tool in diagnosing various uterine abnormalities. The technique is fairly easy to learn and may be performed without assistance. The biopsy is obtained through the use of an endometrial suction catheter that is inserted through the cervix into the uterine cavity. Twirling the catheter while moving it in and out of the uterine cavity enhances uptake of uterine tissue, which is aspirated into the catheter and removed. Endometrial biopsy is useful in the work-up of abnormal uterine bleeding, cancer screening, endometrial dating and infertility evaluation. Contraindications to the procedure include pregnancy, acute pelvic inflammatory disease, and acute cervical or vaginal infections. Postoperative infection is rare but may be further prevented through the use of prophylactic antibiotic therapy. Intraoperative and postoperative cramping are frequent side effects.
Specialized Nutrition Support - Article
ABSTRACT: Specialized nutrition support should be offered to patients who are malnourished or at risk of becoming malnour- ished when it would benefit patient outcomes or quality of life. Improving the nutritional value of ingested food and tailoring intake to the patient’s preferences, abilities, and schedule should be the first measures in addressing nutritional needs. When these interventions alone are insufficient to meet nutritional requirements, oral nutritional supplements should be considered. Nutritional status should be evaluated in patients before specialized nutrition sup- port is considered. Enteral nutrition is used when patients have a functional gastrointestinal tract but are unable to safely swallow. Although a variety of enteral formulas are available, evidence for choosing a specific formula is often lacking. Parenteral nutrition should be used only when enteral nutrition is not feasible. There are no known benefits of parenteral nutrition over the enteral route, and the risk of serious complications is much greater with parenteral nutrition. Even when the parenteral route is necessary, some enteral nutrition is beneficial when possible. Specialized nutrition support can provide an effective bridge until patients are able to return to normal food and, in rare cases, may be continued as long-term home enteral or parenteral nutrition. Specialized nutrition support is not obligatory and can be harmful in cases of futile care and at the end of life.
ABSTRACT: Successful treatment of patients with ischemic stroke depends on the ability to treat within three hours of onset, because tissue plasminogen activator has not yet been proved effective beyond this time frame. The two major causes of delay in treatment are failure, on the part of the patient or family, to recognize stroke symptoms and failure to access the medical system most efficiently--by calling 911. Hospital stroke teams can shorten the time between patient arrival at the emergency department and treatment. Guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of potential stroke patients are presented, along with goal times for arrival-to-treatment intervals.
ABSTRACT: Inguinal and femoral hernias are the most common conditions for which primary care physicians refer patients for surgical management. Hernias usually present as swelling accompanied by pain or a dragging sensation in the groin. Most hernias can be diagnosed based on the history and clinical examination, but ultrasonography may be useful in differentiating a hernia from other causes of groin swelling. Surgical repair is usually advised because of the danger of incarceration and strangulation, particularly with femoral hernias. Three major types of open repair are currently used, and laparoscopic techniques are also employed. The choice of technique depends on several factors, including the type of hernia, anesthetic considerations, cost, period of postoperative disability and the surgeon's expertise. Following initial herniorrhaphy, complication and recurrence rates are generally low. Laparoscopic techniques make it possible for patients to return to normal activities more quickly, but they are more costly than open procedures. In addition, they require general anesthesia, and the long-term hernia recurrence rate with these procedures is unknown.
Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Updates Recommendations for the Prevention of Varicella - Special Medical Reports
Who Should Operate in Carotid Disease? - Editorials
American Thoracic Society Updates Statement on Pulmonary Rehabilitation - Practice Guidelines
Tympanocentesis: To Tap or Not to Tap - Editorials