ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Retinoblastoma - Article
ABSTRACT: Retinoblastoma, a neuroblastic tumor, is the most common primary intraocular malignancy of childhood. Patients usually present with leukokoria (white reflex or white pupil), detected in primary care. The mean age at diagnosis is 12 months for bilateral tumors and 24 months for unilateral tumors. If untreated, almost all patients die of intracranial extension and disseminated disease within two years. However, new diagnostic and treatment methods allow for a high cure rate (93 percent five-year survival in the United States), therefore it is important that primary care physicians recognize the manifestations of this malignancy. Diagnosis is primarily by history and complete ophthalmic examination, with studies including ultrasonography of the eye and imaging of the orbits and brain. Treatment modalities include laser thermotherapy, cryotherapy, radioactive plaques, external beam radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and enucleation. Prospective parents with a family history of retinoblastoma should be referred for genetic counseling. Office evaluation for a red reflex in children should be performed until three years of age. If leukokoria is observed, the patient should be examined by an ophthalmologist within one week.
ABSTRACT: The collection of a family history ranges from simply asking patients if family members have the same presenting illness to diagramming complex medical and psychosocial relationships as part of a family genogram. The three-generation pedigree provides a pictorial representation of diseases within a family and is the most efficient way to assess hereditary influences on disease. Two recent events have made family history assessment more important than ever: the completion of the Human Genome Project with resultant identification of the inherited causes of many diseases, and the establishment of national clinical practice guidelines based on systematic reviews of preventive interventions. The family history is useful in stratifying a patient's risk for rare single-gene disorders and more common diseases with multiple genetic and environmental contributions. Major organizations have endorsed using standardized symbols in pedigrees to identify inherited contributions to disease.
Routine Aspirin or Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs for the Primary Prevention of Colorectal Cancer - Putting Prevention into Practice
The Clinical Importance of Defining Family - Editorials
Genetic Testing: When to Test, When to Refer - Editorials
At-Home Genetic Tests - Curbside Consultation
Asymptomatic Yellowish Papules - Photo Quiz
Genetic Risk Assessment and BRCA Mutation Testing for Breast and Ovarian Cancer Susceptibility - Putting Prevention into Practice