ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Childhood Asthma: Treatment Update - Article
ABSTRACT: The prevalence of childhood asthma has risen significantly over the past four decades. A family history of atopic disease is associated with an increased likelihood of developing asthma, and environmental triggers such as tobacco smoke significantly increase the severity of daily asthma symptoms and the frequency of acute exacerbations. The goal of asthma therapy is to control symptoms, optimize lung function, and minimize days lost from school. Acute care of an asthma exacerbation involves the use of inhaled beta2 agonists delivered by a metered-dose inhaler with a spacer, or a nebulizer, supplemented by anticholinergics in more severe exacerbations. The use of systemic and inhaled corticosteroids early in an asthma attack may decrease the rate of hospitalization. Chronic care focuses on controlling asthma by treating the underlying airway inflammation. Inhaled corticosteroids are the agent of choice in preventive care, but leukotriene inhibitors and nedocromil also can be used as prophylactic therapy. Long-acting beta2 agonists may be added to one of the anti-inflammatory medications to improve control of asthma symptoms. Education programs for caregivers and self-management training for children with asthma improve outcomes. Although the control of allergens has not been demonstrated to work as monotherapy, immunotherapy as an adjunct to standard medical therapy can improve asthma control. Sublingual immunotherapy is a newer, more convenient option than injectable immunotherapy, but it requires further study. Omalizumab, a newer medication for prevention and control of moderate to severe asthma, is an expensive option.
ABSTRACT: Leukotriene inhibitors are the first new class of medications for the treatment of persistent asthma that have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in more than two decades. They also have been approved for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Prescriptions of leukotriene inhibitors have outpaced the evidence supporting their use, perhaps because of perceived ease of use compared with other asthma medications. In the treatment of persistent asthma, randomized controlled trials have shown leukotriene inhibitors to be more effective than placebo but less effective than inhaled corticosteroids. The use of leukotriene inhibitors has not consistently shown an inhaled-steroid-sparing effect, a reduction in need for systemic steroid treatment, or a cost savings. For exercise-induced asthma, leukotriene inhibitors are as effective as long-acting beta2-agonist bronchodilators and are superior to placebo; they have not been compared with short-acting bronchodilators. Leukotriene inhibitors are as effective as antihistamines but are less effective than intranasal steroids for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. The use of leukotriene inhibitors in treating atopic dermatitis, aspirin-intolerant asthma, and chronic idiopathic urticaria appears promising but has not been studied thoroughly. Leukotriene inhibitors have minimal side effects and are well tolerated in most populations.
ABSTRACT: The National Asthma Education and Prevention Program recently updated its guidelines for the management of asthma. An evidence-based approach was used to examine several key issues regarding appropriate medical therapy for patients with asthma. The updated guidelines have clarified these issues and should alter the way physicians prescribe asthma medications. Chronic inhaled corticosteroid use is safe in adults and children, and inhaled corticosteroids are recommended as first-line therapy in adults and children with persistent asthma, even if the disease is mild. Other medications, such as cromolyn, theophylline, and leukotriene modifiers, now are considered alternative treatments and should have a more limited role in the management of persistent asthma. The addition of a long-acting beta2 agonist to an inhaled corticosteroid is superior to all other combinations as well as to higher dosages of inhaled corticosteroids alone. Combination therapy with an inhaled corticosteroid and a long-acting beta2 agonist is the preferred treatment for adults and children with moderate to severe asthma. Antibiotic therapy offers no additional benefit in patients with asthma exacerbations.
Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists for the Treatment of Allergic Skin Disorders - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries
ABSTRACT: Atopic dermatitis is a common, potentially debilitating condition that can compromise quality of life. Its most frequent symptom is pruritus. Attempts to relieve the itch by scratching simply worsen the rash, creating a vicious circle. Treatment should be directed at limiting itching, repairing the skin and decreasing inflammation when necessary. Lubricants, antihistamines and topical corticosteroids are the mainstays of therapy. When required, oral corticosteroids can be used. If pruritus does not respond to treatment, other diagnoses, such as bacterial overgrowth or viral infections, should be considered. Treatment options are available for refractory atopic dermatitis, but these measures should be reserved for use in unique situations and typically require consultation with a dermatologist or an allergist.
Urticaria: Evaluation and Treatment - Article
ABSTRACT: Urticaria involves intensely pruritic, raised wheals, with or without edema of the deeper cutis. It is usually a self-limited, benign reaction, but can be chronic. Rarely, it may represent serious systemic disease or a life-threatening allergic reaction. Urticaria has a lifetime prevalence of approximately 20 percent in the general population. It is caused by immunoglobulin E– and nonimmunoglobulin E–mediated mast cell and basophil release of histamine and other inflammatory mediators. Diagnosis is made clinically. Chronic urticaria is usually idiopathic and requires only a simple laboratory workup unless elements of the history or physical examination suggest specific underlying conditions. Treatment includes avoidance of triggers, although these can be identified in only 10 to 20 percent of patients with chronic urticaria. First-line pharmacotherapy for acute and chronic urticaria is nonsedating second-generation antihistamines (histamine H1 blockers), which can be titrated to larger than standard doses. First-generation antihistamines, histamine H2 blockers, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and brief corticosteroid bursts may be used as adjunctive treatment. More than one-half of patients with chronic urticaria will have resolution or improvement of symptoms within one year.