ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
ABSTRACT: Braces and splints can be useful for acute injuries, chronic conditions, and the prevention of injury. There is good evidence to support the use of some braces and splints; others are used because of subjective reports from patients, relatively low cost, and few adverse effects, despite limited data on their effectiveness. The unloader (valgus) knee brace is recommended for pain reduction in patients with osteoarthritis of the medial compartment of the knee. Use of the patellar brace for patellofemoral pain syndrome is neither recommended nor discouraged because good evidence for its effectiveness is lacking. A knee immobilizer may be used for a limited number of acute traumatic knee injuries. Functional ankle braces are recommended rather than immobilization for the treatment of acute ankle sprains, and semirigid ankle braces decrease the risk of future ankle sprains in patients with a history of ankle sprain. A neutral wrist splint worn full-time improves symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. Close follow-up after bracing or splinting is essential to ensure proper fit and use.
Osteoarthritis of the Knee - Clinical Evidence Handbook
Arthroscopic Surgery for Knee Osteoarthritis - Cochrane for Clinicians
Glucosamine - Article
ABSTRACT: Glucosamine is one of the most popular dietary supplements sold in the United States. Most clinical trials have focused on its use in osteoarthritis of the knee. The reported adverse effects have been relatively well studied and are generally uncommon and minor. No significant supplement-drug interactions involving glucosamine have been reported. The National Institutes of Health-sponsored Glucosamine/chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial, the largest randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving the supplement, still has not confirmed whether glucosamine is effective in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Despite conflicting results in studies, there is no clear evidence to recommend against its use. If physicians have patients who wish to try glucosamine, it would be reasonable to support a 60-day trial of glucosamine sulfate, especially in those at high risk of secondary effects from other accepted treatments. The decision to continue therapy can then be left to patients on an individual basis, while the physician monitors for possible adverse effects. Glucosamine should be used with caution in patients who have shellfish allergies or asthma, and in those taking diabetes medications or warfarin.
Intra-articular Corticosteroid for Treating Osteoarthritis of the Knee - Cochrane for Clinicians
Glucosamine Treatment for Osteoarthritis - Cochrane for Clinicians
Opioids for Osteoarthritis of the Knee or Hip - Cochrane for Clinicians
ABSTRACT: Most patients with osteoarthritis seek medical attention because of pain. The safest initial approach is to use a simple oral analgesic such as acetaminophen (perhaps in conjunction with topical therapy). If pain relief is inadequate, oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid-like products should be considered. Intra-articular corticosteroid injections may provide short-term pain relief in disease flares. Alleviation of pain does not alter the underlying disease. Attention must also be given to nonpharmacologic measures such as patient education, weight loss and exercise. Relief of pain and restoration of function can be achieved in some patients with early osteoarthritis, particularly if an integrated approach is used. Patients with advanced disease may eventually require surgery, which generally provides excellent results.
Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis - Article
ABSTRACT: Knee osteoarthritis is a common disabling condition that affects more than one-third of persons older than 65 years. Exercise, weight loss, physical therapy, intra-articular corticosteroid injections, and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and braces or heel wedges decrease pain and improve function. Acetaminophen, glucosamine, ginger, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM-e), capsaicin cream, topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acupuncture, and tai chi may offer some benefit. Tramadol has a poor trade-off between risks and benefits and is not routinely recommended. Opioids are being used more often in patients with moderate to severe pain or diminished quality of life, but patients receiving these drugs must be carefully selected and monitored because of the inherent adverse effects. Intra-articular corticosteroid injections are effective, but evidence for injection of hyaluronic acid is mixed. Arthroscopic surgery has been shown to have no benefit in knee osteoarthritis. Total joint arthroplasty of the knee should be considered when conservative symptomatic management is ineffective.
Intra-articular Corticosteroid Injections for Osteoarthritis of the Knee - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries