ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Metabolic Syndrome X
ABSTRACT: Impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose form an intermediate stage in the natural history of diabetes mellitus. From 10 to 15 percent of adults in the United States have one of these conditions. Impaired glucose tolerance is defined as two-hour glucose levels of 140 to 199 mg per dL (7.8 to 11.0 mmol) on the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, and impaired fasting glucose is defined as glucose levels of 100 to 125 mg per dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol per L) in fasting patients. These glucose levels are above normal but below the level that is diagnostic for diabetes. Patients with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose have a significant risk of developing diabetes and thus are an important target group for primary prevention. Risk factors for diabetes include family history of diabetes, body mass index greater than 25 kg per m2, sedentary lifestyle, hypertension, dyslipidemia, history of gestational diabetes or large-for-gestational-age infant, and polycystic ovary syndrome. Blacks, Latin Americans, Native Americans, and Asian-Pacific Islanders also are at increased risk for diabetes. Patients at higher risk should be screened with a fasting plasma glucose level. When the diagnosis of impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose is made, physicians should counsel patients to lose 5 to 7 percent of their body weight and engage in moderate physical activity for at least 150 minutes per week. Drug therapy with metformin or acarbose has been shown to delay or prevent the onset of diabetes. However, medications are not as effective as lifestyle changes, and it is not known if treatment with these drugs is cost effective in the management of impaired glucose tolerance.
Metabolic Syndrome: Time for Action - Article
ABSTRACT: The constellation of dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), elevated blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, and central obesity is identified now as metabolic syndrome, also called syndrome X. Soon, metabolic syndrome will overtake cigarette smoking as the number one risk factor for heart disease among the U.S. population. The National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III has identified metabolic syndrome as an indication for vigorous lifestyle intervention. Effective interventions include diet, exercise, and judicious use of pharmacologic agents to address specific risk factors. Weight loss significantly improves all aspects of metabolic syndrome. Increasing physical activity and decreasing caloric intake by reducing portion sizes will improve metabolic syndrome abnormalities, even in the absence of weight loss. Specific dietary changes that are appropriate for addressing different aspects of the syndrome include reducing saturated fat intake to lower insulin resistance, reducing sodium intake to lower blood pressure, and reducing high-glycemic-index carbohydrate intake to lower triglyceride levels. A diet that includes more fruits, vegetables, whole grains, monounsaturated fats, and low-fat dairy products will benefit most patients with metabolic syndrome. Family physicians can be more effective in helping patients to change their lifestyle behaviors by assessing each patient for the presence of specific risk factors, clearly communicating these risk factors to patients, identifying appropriate interventions to address specific risks, and assisting patients in identifying barriers to behavior change.
Thiazolidinedione Therapy for Managing Metabolic Syndrome - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries