ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Common Stress Fractures - Article
ABSTRACT: Lower extremity stress fractures are common injuries most often associated with participation in sports involving running, jumping, or repetitive stress. The initial diagnosis can be made by identifying localized bone pain that increases with weight bearing or repetitive use. Plain film radiographs are frequently unrevealing. Confirmation of a stress fracture is best made using triple phase nuclear medicine bone scan or magnetic resonance imaging. Prevention of stress fractures is most effectively accomplished by increasing the level of exercise slowly, adequately warming up and stretching before exercise, and using cushioned insoles and appropriate footwear. Treatment involves rest of the injured bone, followed by a gradual return to the sport once free of pain. Recent evidence supports the use of air splinting to reduce pain and decrease the time until return to full participation or intensity of exercise.
An Unusual Petechial Rash - Photo Quiz
Diagnosis and Treatment of Venous Ulcers - Article
ABSTRACT: Venous ulcer, also known as stasis ulcer, is the most common etiology of lower extremity ulceration, affecting approximately 1 percent of the U.S. population. Possible causes of venous ulcers include inflammatory processes resulting in leukocyte activation, endothelial damage, platelet aggregation, and intracellular edema. The primary risk factors for venous ulcer development are older age, obesity, previous leg injuries, deep venous thrombosis, and phlebitis. On physical examination, venous ulcers are generally irregular, shallow, and located over bony prominences. Granulation tissue and fibrin are typically present in the ulcer base. Associated findings include lower extremity varicosities, edema, venous dermatitis, and lipodermatosclerosis. Venous ulcers are usually recurrent, and an open ulcer can persist for weeks to many years. Severe complications include cellulitis, osteomyelitis, and malignant change. Poor prognostic factors include large ulcer size and prolonged duration. Evidence-based treatment options for venous ulcers include leg elevation, compression therapy, dressings, pentoxifylline, and aspirin therapy. Surgical management may be considered for ulcers that are large in size, of prolonged duration, or refractory to conservative measures.
Interventions for Lower-Extremity Lymphedema - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries