ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Risk Reduction Behavior
ABSTRACT: Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. More than 60 percent of U.S. adults are now overweight or obese (defined as at least 30 lb [13.6 kg] overweight), predisposing more than 97 million Americans to a host of chronic diseases and conditions. Physical activity has a positive effect on weight loss, total body fat, and body fat distribution, as well as maintenance of favorable body weight and change in body composition. Many of the protective aspects of exercise and activity appear to occur in overweight persons who gain fitness but remain overweight. Despite the well-known health and quality-of-life benefits of regular physical activity, few Americans are routinely active. Results of research studies have shown that physician intervention to discuss physical activity (including the wide array of health benefits and the potential barriers to being active) need not take more than three to five minutes during an office visit but can play a critical role in patient implementation. This article describes elements of effective counseling for physical activity and presents guidelines for developing physical activity programs for overweight and obese patients.
ABSTRACT: The primary treatment goals in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease are relief of symptoms, prevention of symptom relapse, healing of erosive esophagitis, and prevention of complications of esophagitis. In patients with reflux esophagitis, treatment is directed at acid suppression through the use of lifestyle modifications (e.g., elevating the head of the bed, modifying the size and composition of meals) and pharmacologic agents (a histamine H2-receptor antagonist [H2RA] taken on demand or a proton pump inhibitor IPPI] taken 30 to 60 minutes before the first meal of the day). The preferred empiric approach is step-up therapy (treat initially with an H2RA for eight weeks; if symptoms do not improve, change to a PPI) or step-down therapy (treat initially with a PPI; then titrate to the lowest effective medication type and dosage). In patients with erosive esophagitis identified on endoscopy, a PPI is the initial treatment of choice. Diagnostic testing should be reserved for patients who exhibit warning signs (i.e., weight loss, dysphagia, gastrointestinal bleeding) and patients who are at risk for complications of esophagitis (i.e., esophageal stricture formation, Barrett's esophagus, adenocarcinoma). Antireflux surgery, including open and laparoscopic versions of Nissen fundoplication, is an alternative treatment in patients who have chronic reflux with recalcitrant symptoms. Newer endoscopic modalities, including the Stretta and endocinch procedures, are less invasive and have fewer complications than antireflux surgery, but response rates are lower.
Cardiomyopathy: An Overview - Article
ABSTRACT: Cardiomyopathy is an anatomic and pathologic diagnosis associated with muscle or electrical dysfunction of the heart. Cardiomyopathies represent a heterogeneous group of diseases that often lead to progressive heart failure with significant morbidity and mortality. Cardiomyopathies may be primary (i.e., genetic, mixed, or acquired) or secondary (e.g., infiltrative, toxic, inflammatory). Major types include dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, restrictive cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Although cardiomyopathy is asymptomatic in the early stages, symptoms are the same as those characteristically seen in any type of heart failure and may include shortness of breath, fatigue, cough, orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, and edema. Diagnostic studies include B-type natriuretic peptide levels, baseline serum chemistries, electrocardiography, and echocardiography. Treatment is targeted at relieving the symptoms of heart failure and reducing rates of heart failure-related hospitalization and mortality. Treatment options include pharmacotherapy, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, cardiac resynchronization therapy, and heart transplantation. Recommended lifestyle changes include restricting alcohol consumption, losing weight, exercising, quitting smoking, and eating a low-sodium diet.
Management of Erectile Dysfunction - Article
ABSTRACT: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the most common sexual problem in men. The incidence increases with age and affects up to one third of men throughout their lives. It causes a substantial negative impact on intimate relationships, quality of life, and self-esteem. History and physical examination are sufficient to make a diagnosis of ED in most cases, because there is no preferred, first-line diagnostic test. Initial diagnostic workup should usually be limited to a fasting serum glucose level and lipid panel, thyroid-stimulating hormone test, and morning total testosterone level. First-line therapy for ED consists of lifestyle changes, modifying drug therapy that may cause ED, and pharmacotherapy with phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. Obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and smoking greatly increase the risk of ED. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors are the most effective oral drugs for treatment of ED, including ED associated with diabetes mellitus, spinal cord injury, and antidepressants. Intraurethral and intracavernosal alprostadil, vacuum pump devices, and surgically implanted penile prostheses are alternative therapeutic options when phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors fail. Testosterone supplementation in men with hypogonadism improves ED and libido, but requires interval monitoring of hemoglobin, serum transaminase, and prostate-specific antigen levels because of an increased risk of prostate adenocarcinoma. Cognitive behavior therapy and therapy aimed at improving relationships may help to improve ED. Screening for cardiovascular risk factors should be considered in men with ED, because symptoms of ED present on average three years earlier than symptoms of coronary artery disease. Men with ED are at increased risk of coronary, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular diseases.
ABSTRACT: Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States. In patients who have had a myocardial infarction or revascularization procedure, secondary prevention of coronary artery disease by comprehensive risk factor modification reduces mortality, decreases subsequent cardiac events, and improves quality of life. Options for secondary prevention include medical therapy and surgical revascularization in the form of coronary artery bypass grafting or percutaneous coronary intervention. Medical therapy focuses on comprehensive risk factor modification. Therapeutic lifestyle changes (including weight management, physical activity, tobacco cessation, and dietary modification) improve cardiac risk factors and are universally recommended by evidence-based guidelines. Treatment of hypertension and dyslipidemia reduces morbidity and mortality. Recommendations for persons with diabetes mellitus generally encourage glucose control, but current evidence has not shown reductions in mortality with intensive glucose management. Aspirin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and beta blockers reduce recurrent cardiac events in patients after myocardial infarction. Surgical revascularization by coronary artery bypass grafting is recommended for those with significant left main coronary artery stenosis, significant stenosis of the proximal left anterior descending artery, multivessel coronary disease, or disabling angina. Percutaneous coronary intervention may be considered in select patients with objective evidence of ischemia demonstrated by noninvasive testing.
Getting Motivated Is Difficult - Close-ups
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome - Article
ABSTRACT: Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common entrapment neuropathy, affecting approximately 3 to 6 percent of adults in the general population. Although the cause is not usually determined, it can include trauma, repetitive maneuvers, certain diseases, and pregnancy. Symptoms are related to compression of the median nerve, which results in pain, numbness, and tingling. Physical examination findings, such as hypalgesia, square wrist sign, and a classic or probable pattern on hand symptom diagram, are useful in making the diagnosis. Nerve conduction studies and electromyography can resolve diagnostic uncertainty and can be used to quantify and stratify disease severity. Treatment options are based on disease severity. Six weeks to three months of conservative treatment can be considered in patients with mild disease. Lifestyle modifications, including decreasing repetitive activity and using ergonomic devices, have been traditionally advocated, but have inconsistent evidence to support their effectiveness. Cock-up and neutral wrist splints and oral corticosteroids are considered first-line therapies, with local corticosteroid injections used for refractory symptoms. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, diuretics, and pyridoxine (vitamin B6) have been shown to be no more effective than placebo. Most conservative treatments provide short-term symptom relief, with little evidence supporting long-term benefits. Patients with moderate to severe disease should be considered for surgical evaluation. Open and endoscopic surgical approaches have similar five-year outcomes.
ACCF/AHA Update Peripheral Artery Disease Management Guideline - Practice Guidelines
ABSTRACT: Adverse drug events occur in 15 percent or more of older patients presenting to offices, hospitals, and extended care facilities. These events are potentially preventable up to 50 percent of the time. Common serious manifestations include falls, orthostatic hypotension, heart failure, and delirium. The most common causes of death are gastrointestinal or intracranial bleeding and renal failure. Antithrombotic and antidiabetic medications, diuretics, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs cause most of the preventable hospital admissions due to adverse drug events. Strategies to reduce the risk of adverse drug events include discontinuing medications, prescribing new medications sparingly, reducing the number of prescribers, and frequently reconciling medications. The Beers, STOPP (screening tool of older persons’ potentially inappropriate prescriptions), and START (screening tool to alert doctors to right treatment) criteria can help identify medications causing adverse drug events. Not all potentially inappropriate medications can be avoided. Clinicians should involve patients in shared decision making and individualize prescribing decisions based on medical, functional, and social conditions; quality of life; and prognosis.
Metformin Use in Adolescents - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries