Items in AFP with MESH term: Early Diagnosis
Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures - Article
ABSTRACT: Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures are episodes of movement, sensation, or behaviors that are similar to epileptic seizures but do not have a neurologic origin; rather, they are somatic manifestations of psychologic distress. Patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures frequently are misdiagnosed and treated for epilepsy. Video-electroencephalography monitoring is preferred for diagnosis. From 5 to 10 percent of outpatient epilepsy patients and 20 to 40 percent of inpatient epilepsy patients have psychogenic nonepileptic seizures. These patients inevitably have comorbid psychiatric illnesses, most commonly depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, other dissociative and somatoform disorders, and personality pathology, especially borderline personality type. Many patients have a history of sexual or physical abuse. Between 75 and 85 percent of patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures are women. Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures typically begin in young adulthood. Treatment involves discontinuation of antiepileptic drugs in patients without concurrent epilepsy and referral for appropriate psychiatric care. More studies are needed to determine the best treatment modalities.
ABSTRACT: Recent innovations in medical technology have changed newborn screening programs in the United States. The widespread use of tandem mass spectrometry is helping to identify more inborn errors of metabolism. Primary care physicians often are the first to be contacted by state and reference laboratories when neonatal screening detects the possibility of an inborn error of metabolism. Physicians must take immediate steps to evaluate the infant and should be able to access a regional metabolic disorder subspecialty center. Detailed knowledge of biochemical pathways is not necessary to treat patients during the initial evaluation. Nonspecific metabolic abnormalities (e.g., hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis, hyperammonemia) must be treated urgently even if the specific underlying metabolic disorder is not yet known. Similarly, physicians still must recognize inborn errors of metabolism that are not detected reliably by tandem mass spectrometry and know when to pursue additional diagnostic testing. The early and specific diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism and prompt initiation of appropriate therapy are still the best determinants of outcome for these patients.
Screening for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Adults: Recommendation Statement - U.S. Preventive Services Task Force
Screening for Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Adults: Reaffirmation Recommendation Statement - U.S. Preventive Services Task Force
Primary Care for Children with Autism - Article
ABSTRACT: The earliest sign of autism in children is the delayed attainment of social skill milestones, including joint attention, social orienting, and pretend play. Language impairment is a common, but less specific, sign of autism. Repetitive behaviors and restricted interests may not be noted until after social skill and communication impairments are exhibited. Physicians should perform developmental surveillance at all well-child visits, and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends administering an autism-specific screening tool at the 18- and 24-month visits. A referral for comprehensive diagnostic evaluation is appropriate if concerns arise from surveillance, screening, or parental observations. The goals of long-term management are to maximize functional independence and community engagement, minimize maladaptive behaviors, and provide family and caregiver support. Physicians play an important role in coordinating care through an interdisciplinary team; referring families for specialized services; and treating children's associated conditions, including sleep disturbances, gastrointestinal problems, anxiety, and hyperactivity. Autism is a lifelong condition, but early recognition, diagnosis, and treatment can improve the prognosis, whereas associated medical conditions, psychiatric conditions, and intellectual disability can worsen the prognosis.
ABSTRACT: The most common types of supraventricular tachycardia are caused by a reentry phenomenon producing accelerated heart rates. Symptoms may include palpitations (pulsation in the neck), chest pain, lightheadedness or dizziness, and dyspnea. It is unusual for supraventricular tachycardia to be caused by structurally abnormal hearts. Diagnosis is often delayed because of the misdiagnosis of anxiety or panic disorder. Patient history is important in uncovering the diagnosis, whereas the physical examination may or may not be helpful, and usually necessitates use of a Holter monitor or an event recorder to capture the arrhythmia and confirm a diagnosis. Treatment consists of short-term or as needed pharmacotherapy using calcium channel or beta blockers when vagal maneuvers fail to halt or slow the rhythm. In those who require long-term pharmacotherapy, atrioventricular nodal blocking agents or class IC or III antiarrhythmics can be used; however, these agents should generally be managed by a cardiologist. Catheter ablation is an option in patients with persistent or recurrent supraventricular tachycardia who are unable to tolerate long-term pharmacologic management. If Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is present, expedient referral to a cardiologist is warranted because ablation is a potentially curative option.
Oral Manifestations of Systemic Disease - Article
ABSTRACT: Careful examination of the oral cavity may reveal findings indicative of an underlying systemic condition, and allow for early diagnosis and treatment. Examination should include evaluation for mucosal changes, periodontal inflammation and bleeding, and general condition of the teeth. Oral findings of anemia may include mucosal pallor, atrophic glossitis, and candidiasis. Oral ulceration may be found in patients with lupus erythematosus, pemphigus vulgaris, or Crohn disease. Additional oral manifestations of lupus erythematosus may include honeycomb plaques (silvery white, scarred plaques); raised keratotic plaques (ver- rucous lupus erythematosus); and nonspecific erythema, purpura, petechiae, and cheilitis. Additional oral findings in patients with Crohn disease may include diffuse mucosal swelling, cobblestone mucosa, and localized mucogingivitis. Diffuse melanin pigmentation may be an early manifestation of Addison disease. Severe periodontal inflammation or bleeding should prompt investigation of conditions such as diabetes mellitus, human immunodeficiency virus infection, thrombocytopenia, and leukemia. In patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease, bulimia, or anorexia, exposure of tooth enamel to acidic gastric contents may cause irreversible dental erosion. Severe erosion may require dental restorative treatment. In patients with pemphigus vulgaris, thrombocytopenia, or Crohn disease, oral changes may be the first sign of disease.
Screening for the Early Detection and Prevention of Oral Cancer - Cochrane for Clinicians
Screening for Osteoporosis - Putting Prevention into Practice