ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome - Article
ABSTRACT: Irritable bowel syndrome affects 10 to 15 percent of the U.S. population to some degree. This condition is defined as abdominal pain and discomfort with altered bowel habits in the absence of any other mechanical, inflammatory, or biochemical explanation for these symptoms. Irritable bowel syndrome is more likely to affect women than men and is most common in patients 30 to 50 years of age. Symptoms are improved equally by diets supplemented with fiber or hydrolyzed guar gum, but more patients prefer hydrolyzed guar gum. Antispasmodic agents may be used as needed, but anticholinergic and other side effects limit their use in some patients. Loperamide is an option for treatment of moderately severe diarrhea. Antidepressants have been shown to relieve pain and may be effective in low doses. Trials using alosetron showed a clinically significant, although modest, gain over placebo, but it is indicated only for women with severe diarrhea-predominant symptoms or for those in whom conventional treatment has failed. Tegaserod has an advantage over placebo in constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome; it is indicated for up to 12 weeks of treatment in women. However, postmarketing reports of severe diarrhea and ischemic colitis further limit its use. Herbal therapies such as peppermint oil also may be effective in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Therapies should focus on specific gastrointestinal dysfunctions (e.g., constipation, diarrhea, pain), and medications only should be used when nonprescription remedies do not work or when symptoms are severe.
Tegaserod in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome - Cochrane for Clinicians
Peppermint Oil - Article
ABSTRACT: Peppermint leaf and peppermint oil have a long history of use for digestive disorders. Recent evidence suggests that enteric-coated peppermint oil may be effective in relieving some of the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. A combination product including peppermint oil and caraway oil seems to be moderately effective in the treatment of non-ulcer dyspepsia. Topical application of peppermint oil may be effective in the treatment of tension headache. Because of its relaxing effects on smooth muscle, peppermint oil given via enema has been modestly effective for relief of colonic spasm in patients undergoing barium enemas. Peppermint oil is well tolerated at the commonly recommended dosage, but it may cause significant adverse effects at higher dosages.
ABSTRACT: Irritable bowel syndrome is defined as abdominal discomfort or pain associated with altered bowel habits for at least three days per month in the previous three months, with the absence of organic disease. In North America, the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome is 5 to 10 percent with peak prevalence from 20 to 39 years of age. Abdominal pain is the most common symptom and often is described as a cramping sensation. The absence of abdominal pain essentially excludes irritable bowel syndrome. Other common symptoms include diarrhea, constipation, or alternating diarrhea and constipation. The goals of treatment are symptom relief and improved quality of life. Exercise, antibiotics, antispasmodics, peppermint oil, and probiotics appear to improve symptoms. Over-the-counter laxatives and antidiarrheals may improve stool frequency but not pain. Treatment with antidepressants and psychological therapies are also effective for improving symptoms compared with usual care. Lubiprostone is effective for the treatment of constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, and alosetron (restrictions for use apply in the United States) and tegaserod (available only for emergency use in the United States) are approved for patients with severe symptoms in whom conventional therapy has been ineffective.