ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Prevention of Osteoporosis and Fractures - Article
ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis and low bone density are associated with a risk of fracture as a result of even minimally traumatic events. The estimated lifetime risk of osteoporotic fracture is as high as 50 percent, especially in white and Asian women. The use of caffeine, tobacco and steroids is associated with a decrease in bone density. Cognitive impairment, vision problems and postural instability increase the risk of falling and sustaining a fracture. Medications such as long-acting sedative hypnotics, anticonvulsants and tricyclic antidepressants also increase this risk. Combinations of clinical and radiographic findings can predict fracture risk more effectively than bone densitometry, but often only after the first fracture has occurred. The addition of dietary calcium and/or vitamin D is clearly both cost-effective and significant in reducing the likelihood of fractures. Bisphosphonates reduce fracture risk but at a cost that may be prohibitive for some patients. Estrogen and estrogen-receptor modulators have not been well studied in randomized trials evaluating the reduction of fractures, but they are known to increase bone density. Pharmacologic therapy and the reduction of sensory and environmental hazards can prevent osteoporotic fractures in some patients.
Fingertip Injuries - Article
ABSTRACT: The family physician often provides the first and only medical intervention for fingertip injuries. Proper diagnosis and management of fingertip injuries are vital to maintaining proper function of the hand and preventing permanent disability. A subungual hematoma is a painful condition that involves bleeding beneath the nail, usually after trauma. Treatment requires subungual decompression, which is achieved by creating small holes in the nail. A nail bed laceration is treated by removing the nail and suturing the injured nail bed. Closed fractures of the distal phalanx may require reduction but usually are minimally displaced and stable, and can be splinted. Open or intra-articular fractures of the distal phalanx may warrant referral. Patients with mallet finger cannot extend the distal interphalangeal joint because of a disruption of the extensor mechanism. Radiographs help to differentiate between tendinous and bony mallet types. Most mallet finger injuries heal with six to eight weeks of splinting, but some require referral. Flexor digitorum profundus avulsion always requires referral. Dislocations of the distal interphalangeal joint are rare and usually occur dorsally.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Osteoporosis - Article
ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis affects approximately 8 million women and 2 million men in the United States. The associated fractures are a common and preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in up to 50 percent of older women. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry to screen all women 65 years and older and women 60 to 64 years of age who have increased fracture risk. Some organizations recommend considering screening in all men 70 years and older. For persons with osteoporosis diagnosed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry or previous fragility fracture, effective first-line treatment consists of fall prevention, adequate intake of calcium (at least 1,200 mg per day) and vitamin D (at least 700 to 800 IU per day), and treatment with a bisphosphonate. Raloxifene, calcitonin, teriparatide, or hormone therapy maybe considered for certain subsets of patients.
Fracture Prevention in Postmenopausal Women - Clinical Evidence Handbook
Common Forearm Fractures in Adults - Article
ABSTRACT: Fractures of the forearm are common injuries in adults. Proper initial assessment includes a detailed history of the mechanism of injury, a complete examination of the affected arm, and appropriate radiography. Open fractures, joint dislocation or instability, and evidence of neurovascular injury are indications for emergent referral. Fractures demonstrating significant displacement, comminution, or intra-articular involvement may also warrant orthopedic consultation. In the absence of these findings, many forearm fractures can be managed by a primary care physician. Initial management of forearm fractures should follow the PRICE (protection, rest, ice, compression, and elevation) protocol, with the exception of compression, which should be avoided in the acute setting. Distal radius fractures with minimal displacement can be treated with a short arm cast. Isolated ulnar fractures can usually be managed with a short arm cast or a functional forearm brace. Mason type I radial head fractures can be treated with a splint for five to seven days or with a sling as needed for comfort, along with early range-of-motion exercises. Patients with an olecranon fracture are candidates for nonsurgical treatment if the elbow is stable and the extensor mechanism is intact.
NIH Releases Statement on Osteoporosis Prevention, Diagnosis, and Therapy - Practice Guidelines
Postmenopausal Hormone Replacement Therapy for the Primary Prevention of Chronic Conditions - U.S. Preventive Services Task Force
Raloxifene for Prevention of Osteoporotic Fractures - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries
Newborn with Abnormal Arm Posture - Photo Quiz