Items in AFP with MESH term: Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
Statins for Non-Dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease - Cochrane for Clinicians
ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease affects an estimated 27 million adults in the United States, and is associated with significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. Patients should be assessed annually to determine whether they are at increased risk of developing chronic kidney disease based on clinical and sociodemographic factors. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and older age are the primary risk factors that warrant screening. Other risk factors include cardiovascular disease, family history of chronic kidney disease, and ethnic and racial minority status. Serum creatinine levels can be used to estimate the glomerular filtration rate, and spot urine testing can detect proteinuria. After the diagnosis of chronic kidney disease is made, staging based on estimated glomerular filtration rate determines prognosis, evaluation, and management. Further evaluation should focus on the specific type of kidney disease and on identifying complications related to the disease stage. Patients should be assessed for risk factors leading to the further loss of kidney function and cardiovascular disease. Patients with estimated glomerular filtration rates less than 30 mL per minute per 1.73 m2, significant proteinuria, or rapid loss of kidney function should be referred to a nephrologist for further evaluation and management.
Gynecomastia - Article
ABSTRACT: Gynecomastia is defined as benign proliferation of glandular breast tissue in men. Physiologic gynecomastia is common in newborns, adolescents, and older men. It is self-limited, but can be treated to minimize emotional distress and physical discomfort. Nonphysiologic gynecomastia may be caused by chronic conditions (e.g., cirrhosis, hypogonadism, renal insufficiency); use of medications, supplements, or illicit drugs; and, rarely, tumors. Discontinuing use of contributing medications and treating underlying disease are the mainstay of treatment. Medications, such as estrogen receptor modulators, and surgery have a role in treating gynecomastia in select patients. Treatment should be pursued early and should be directed by the patient.
Parathyroid Disorders - Article
ABSTRACT: Disorders of the parathyroid glands most commonly present with abnormalities of serum calcium. Patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, the most common cause of hypercalcemia in outpatients, are often asymptomatic or may have bone disease, nephrolithiasis, or neuromuscular symptoms. Patients with chronic kidney disease may develop secondary hyperparathyroidism with resultant chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder. Hypoparathyroidism most often occurs after neck surgery; it can also be caused by autoimmune destruction of the glands and other less common problems. Evaluation of patients with abnormal serum calcium levels includes a history and physical examination; repeat measurement of serum calcium level; and measurement of creatinine, magnesium, vitamin D, and parathyroid hormone levels. The treatment for symptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism is parathyroidectomy. Management of asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism includes monitoring symptoms; serum calcium and creatinine levels; and bone mineral density. Patients with hypoparathyroidism require close monitoring and vitamin D (e.g., calcitriol) replacement.