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ABSTRACT: Recurrent urinary tract infections, presenting as dysuria or irritative voiding symptoms, are most commonly caused by reinfection with the original bacterial isolate in young, otherwise healthy women with no anatomic or functional abnormalities of the urinary tract. Frequency of sexual intercourse is the strongest predictor of recurrent urinary tract infections in patients presenting with recurrent dysuria. In those who have comorbid conditions or other predisposing factors, recurrent complicated urinary tract infections represent a risk for ascending infection or urosepsis. Escherichia coli is the most common organism in all patient groups, but Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Proteus, and other organisms are more common in patients with certain risk factors for complicated urinary tract infections. A positive urine culture with greater than 102 colony-forming units per mL is the standard for diagnosing urinary tract infections in symptomatic patients, although culture is often unnecessary for diagnosing typical symptomatic infection. Women with recurrent symptomatic urinary tract infections can be treated with continuous or postcoital prophylactic antibiotics; other treatment options include self-started antibiotics, cranberry products, and behavioral modification. Patients at risk of complicated urinary tract infections are best managed with broad-spectrum antibiotics initially, urine culture to guide subsequent therapy, and renal imaging studies if structural abnormalities are suspected.
ABSTRACT: Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infections in women. Most urinary tract infections are acute uncomplicated cystitis. Identifiers of acute uncomplicated cystitis are frequency and dysuria in an immunocompetent woman of childbearing age who has no comorbidities or urologic abnormalities. Physical examination is typically normal or positive for suprapubic tenderness. A urinalysis, but not urine culture, is recommended in making the diagnosis. Guidelines recommend three options for first-line treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis: fosfomycin, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (in regions where the prevalence of Escherichia coli resistance does not exceed 20 percent). Beta-lactam antibiotics, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefaclor, cefdinir, and cefpodoxime are not recommended for initial treatment because of concerns about resistance. Urine cultures are recommended in women with suspected pyelonephritis, women with symptoms that do not resolve or that recur within two to four weeks after completing treatment, and women who present with atypical symptoms.