Call for Authors
This edition of FP EssentialsTM will cover recent updates in respiratory infections. The content should include: community-acquired pneumonia; pulmonary tuberculosis; fungal infections of the respiratory tract; and respiratory infections in immigrants. The content should emphasize new relevant and evidence-based literature rather than provide a general review of the 4 topics.
The manuscript should be approximately 10,000 words in length, divided into 4 sections of approximately 2,500 words each (corresponding to the topics above). Each section should include an abstract of 150 to 200 words. The manuscript should also include key practice recommendations, a maximum of 15 tables and figures, recommended reading, and a reference list of 100 to 130 citations. High-resolution photographs may be included.
This edition should focus on what is new in each topic and should answer the key questions listed for each section. Each section should begin with an illustrative case, similar to the examples provided, with modifications to emphasize key points; each case should have a conclusion that demonstrates resolution of the clinical situation. The references suggested here include information that should be considered in preparation of this manuscript for FP Essentials. However, these references are only a useful starting point that should be used to identify additional information to review.
Section 1: Community-Acquired Pneumonia
Example case: Charlie, a 68-year-old man, presents with a 4-day history of nonproductive cough, low-grade fever, and worsening dyspnea. He has a history of type 2 diabetes that is controlled with oral drugs. He quit smoking 20 years ago after 15 pack-years of smoking, and has never developed any type of chronic lung disease. He denies having chest pain or wheezing. Chest auscultation reveals diminished breath sounds at the right base, and a hazy infiltrate is seen in the right lower lobe on x-ray. He received a pneumococcal vaccine last year and wonders why he is sick now.
Key questions to consider:
- What has changed in the diagnostic evaluation and acute management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adults since publication of the 2007 Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society guidelines? Which diagnostic tests and empiric antimicrobial agents are preferred for CAP in adults in the office and hospital settings?
- Which laboratory and imaging tests should be used to diagnose CAP in children? When are chest x-rays necessary? When should imaging such as computed tomography (CT) scan be used? Which empiric antimicrobial drugs are preferred in children? When should children with CAP be hospitalized?
- How helpful are biologic markers such as procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, and proadrenomedullin (ProADM) in guiding the initiation or discontinuation of antibiotic treatment for pneumonia? How effective are they at predicting infection or reducing antibiotic consumption? What procalcitonin levels suggest that it might be safe to withhold antibiotic therapy? How can biomarkers be used in conjunction with clinical risk assessment tools such as the Pneumonia Severity Index, the CURB-65 score, and the Risk of Early Admission to ICU score to individualize treatment?
- How should physicians use rapid molecular tests for viral and bacterial pathogens to direct treatment and to improve the management of CAP? In particular, what is the current role for polymerase chain reaction testing?
- How important is antimicrobial resistance in the treatment of CAP caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae? How common is community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) pneumonia? Is macrolide monotherapy still a viable option for outpatient management of mild pneumonia? Does empiric therapy with a fluoroquinolone or the combination of a beta-lactam plus a macrolide result in better outcomes for patients hospitalized for CAP?
- What is the role of respiratory viruses in CAP? Should patients be tested for them; if so, when and how? What is the best therapy for influenza and other viral etiologies of CAP? How much of a concern is bacterial coinfection in the management of influenza pneumonia?
- When should physicians suspect Legionella pneumophila as an etiology of CAP? What is the preferred treatment regimen? Is it always necessary to cover empirically for atypical bacteria in patients with CAP?
- When and how should physicians suspect that a patient with apparent CAP has an infection with an unusual organism, such as a fungus or a novel virus?
- What adjunctive measures are effective in the management of severe CAP? Discuss the evidence for oxygen therapy, noninvasive ventilation, corticosteroids, statins, and other interventions. If corticosteroids or statins are used, what doses and regimens provide the most benefit?
- How successful and effective are antibiotic stewardship initiatives in the management of CAP? Do quality measures improve patient outcomes or appropriate antibiotic prescribing in CAP?
Initial references to consider:
- Baron EJ, Miller JM, Weinstein MP, et al. A Guide to Utilization of the Microbiology Laboratory for Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases: 2013 Recommendations by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the American Society for Microbiology (ASM)a. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;57(4):e22-e121. Available at http://www.idsociety.org/Other_Guidelines(www.idsociety.org).
- Bradley JS, Byington CL, Shah SS, et al.; Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America. The management of community-acquired pneumonia in infants and children older than 3 months of age: clinical practice guidelines by the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;53(7):e25-e76. Available at http://www.idsociety.org/Organ_System(www.idsociety.org).
- Chertow DS, Memoli MJ. Bacterial coinfection in influenza: a grand rounds review. JAMA. 2013;309(3):275-282.
- Di Yacovo S, Garcia-Vidal C, Viasus D, et al. Clinical features, etiology, and outcomes of community-acquired pneumonia in patients with diabetes mellitus. Medicine (Baltimore). 2013;92(1):42-50.
- Hurst JM, Bosso JA. Antimicrobial stewardship in the management of community-acquired pneumonia. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2013;26(2):184-188.
- Khan AR, Riaz M, Bin Abdulhak AA, et al. The role of statins in prevention and treatment of community acquired pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e52929.
- Low DE. What is the relevance of antimicrobial resistance on the outcome of community-acquired pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae? (should macrolide monotherapy be used for mild pneumonia?). Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2013;27(1):87-97.
- Moran GJ, Rothman RE, Volturo GA. Emergency management of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia: what is new since the 2007 Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society guidelines. Am J Emerg Med. 2013;31(3):602-612.
- Pavia AT. What is the role of respiratory viruses in community-acquired pneumonia?: What is the best therapy for influenza and other viral causes of community-acquired pneumonia? Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2013;27(1):157-175.
- Quenot JP, Luyt CE, Roche N, et al. Role of biomarkers in the management of antibiotic therapy: an expert panel review II: clinical use of biomarkers for initiation or discontinuation of antibiotic therapy. Ann Intensive Care. 2013;3(1):21.
- Schuetz P, Litke A, Albrich WC, Mueller B. Blood biomarkers for personalized treatment and patient management decisions in community-acquired pneumonia. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2013;26(2):159-167.
- Schuetz P, Müller B, Christ-Crain M, et al. Procalcitonin to initiate or discontinue antibiotics in acute respiratory tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;9:CD007498.
- Sibila O, Restrepo MI, Anzueto A. What is the best antimicrobial treatment for severe community-acquired pneumonia (including the role of steroids and statins and other immunomodulatory agents). Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2013;27(1):133-147.
- Viasus D, Di Yacovo S, Garcia-Vidal C, et al. Community-acquired Legionella pneumophila pneumonia: a single-center experience with 214 hospitalized sporadic cases over 15 years. Medicine (Baltimore). 2013;92(1):51-60.
- Wunderink RG. How important is methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of community-acquired pneumonia and what is best antimicrobial therapy? Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2013;27(1):177-188.
- Zhang Y, Fang C, Dong BR, Wu T, Deng JL. Oxygen therapy for pneumonia in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;3(3):CD006607.
Section 2: Pulmonary Tuberculosis
Example case: John, a 27-year-old physician from Kenya, presents with fatigue and pleuritic chest pain. He is not febrile and the results of his physical examination are normal. However, chest x-ray reveals a small right pleural effusion, hilar lymphadenopathy, and no infiltrate. He has no history of lung disease, but he does recall a 2-week-long febrile illness approximately 4 months ago. Two months ago his pre-employment tuberculin skin test result was reactive, but chest x-ray at that time was negative and the reactive skin test result was attributed to childhood bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination.
Key questions to consider:
- Is pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) more or less common in the United States and worldwide than it was 10 years ago? What is the geographic distribution of endemic TB?
- What are the risk factors for new TB infection and reactivation? What are the typical presenting findings in primary, latent, and reactivation pulmonary infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis?
- What are interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs)? How can IGRAs aid in the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI)? What is the role of IGRAs compared with tuberculin skin testing? Which assays are available in the United States? What are their limitations?
- What are the latest recommendations for treating LTBI in the United States? How effective is dual therapy with isoniazid (Nydrazid) and rifapentine (Priftin) compared with isoniazid monotherapy?
- Update readers on the current diagnostic laboratory and radiologic evaluation of pulmonary TB. How does the evaluation differ in patients with HIV infection?
- What are the roles of rapid molecular tests such as nucleic acid amplification testing and the Xpert MTB/RIF assay? What do these techniques add to traditional microscopic examination of stained tests for acid-fast bacilli?
- When are computed tomography scan, bronchoscopy, gastric aspiration, pleural fluid analysis (including measurement of adenosine deaminase level, lysozyme concentration, and interferon-gamma concentration), and pleural tissue biopsy indicated?
- What are the current recommendations for the drug treatment of active pulmonary TB in immune-competent and immune-deficient adults and children? Discuss initial drug selection and duration of treatment. What is the family physician’s role in initiating and monitoring treatment? What options are available for patients with multidrug-resistant TB infection?
- What methods have been developed for rapid TB drug susceptibility testing? Compare microscopic-observation drug-susceptibility (MODS), thin layer agar assays, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction-based systems, and molecular beacon technology. When should drug resistance be suspected in a patient already being treated? What molecular testing services does the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Division of Tuberculosis Elimination offer?
- What adjunctive measures should be considered in the management of pulmonary TB infection? Is there any proven role for corticosteroids? Which surgical interventions are effective for patients with multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis?
- What infection control measures should be implemented when a patient is found to have pulmonary TB? Is there any data on the cost effectiveness of such measures? How and where should patients be isolated? What must family physicians know about TB reporting in the United States? Who is responsible for reporting, to whom are reports made, and how quickly must reports be made?
- How should patients be monitored after successful treatment for pulmonary TB? What is the risk of recurrent infection? Do nonsmoking patients with a history of pulmonary TB have an increased risk of lung cancer?
Initial references to consider:
- Al-Dabbagh M, Lapphra K, McGloin R, et al. Drug-resistant tuberculosis: pediatric guidelines. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30(6):501-505.
- Brenner DR, Boffetta P, Duell EJ, et al. Previous lung diseases and lung cancer risk: a pooled analysis from the International Lung Cancer Consortium. Am J Epidemiol. 2012;176(7):573-585.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Recommendations for use of an isoniazid-rifapentine regimen with direct observation to treat latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011;60(48):1650-1653. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6048a3.htm(www.cdc.gov).
- Critchley JA, Young F, Orton L, Garner P. Corticosteroids for prevention of mortality in people with tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013;13(3):223-237.
- Davis JL, Cattamanchi A, Cuevas LE, Hopewell PC, Steingart KR. Diagnostic accuracy of same-day microscopy versus standard microscopy for pulmonary tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013;13(2):147-154.
- Fox GJ, Barry SE, Britton WJ, Marks GB. Contact investigation for tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Respir J. 2013;41(1):140-156.
- Lawn SD, Mwaba P, Bates M, et al. Advances in tuberculosis diagnostics: the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and future prospects for a point-of-care test. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013;13(4):349-361.
- Marrone MT, Venkataramanan V, Goodman M, Hill AC, Jereb JA, Mase SR. Surgical interventions for drug-resistant tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2013;17(1):6-16.
- Mazurek GH, Jereb J, Vernon A, LoBue P, Goldberg S, Castro K; IGRA Expert Committee; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Updated guidelines for using Interferon Gamma Release Assays to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection - United States, 2010. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2010;59(RR-5):1-25. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5905a1.htm(www.cdc.gov).
- Samandari T, Agizew TB, Nyirenda S, et al. 6-month versus 36-month isoniazid preventive treatment for tuberculosis in adults with HIV infection in Botswana: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2011;377(9777):1588-1598.
- Steingart KR, Sohn H, Schiller I, et al. Xpert® MTB/RIF assay for pulmonary tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;1:CD009593.
Websites to consider:
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
- Division of Tuberculosis Elimination. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/tb/(www.cdc.gov).
- Mycobacteriology Laboratory Branch. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/tb/topic/laboratory/guide.htm(www.cdc.gov).
- National Institutes of Health. Latest federally approved guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults, adolescents, and children, with sections on TB. Available at http://www.aidsinfo.nih.gov(www.aidsinfo.nih.gov).
Section 3: Fungal Infections
Example case: Clara, a 45-year-old woman, recently was hospitalized for atypical pneumonia with unilateral pleural effusion. She has stage 5 chronic kidney disease and is on dialysis. She also has been taking maintenance prednisone therapy for sarcoidosis. Preliminary pleural fluid analysis was reassuring, and her condition improved promptly after thoracentesis and 2 days of intravenous antibiotics. However, 5 days after discharge the laboratory test results identified Cryptococcus in the pleural fluid culture. On readmission for further evaluation and treatment, Cryptococcus also was identified in her cerebrospinal fluid by antigenic testing, and liposomal amphotericin B was initiated.
Key questions to consider:
- What are the most common and significant fungal infections of the respiratory tract?
- Other than immune deficiency, what are the risk factors for fungal infections of the respiratory tract? How common are these infections in immune-competent patients? Which are of greatest concern for immune-deficient patients?
- When should fungi be suspected in rhinosinusitis? How is fungal infection distinguished from fungal colonization and bacterial infection? How are aspergillomas (fungus balls) diagnosed and managed? How common is invasive fungal sinusitis, and what are the symptoms? Do all patients with suspected fungal sinusitis require nasal endoscopy and biopsy? Which types of acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis can be managed with voriconazole (Vfend), and which require treatment with amphotericin B? When is surgical treatment helpful?
- When should pulmonary cryptococcosis be suspected? Describe the diagnostic evaluation of pulmonary cryptococcosis. What is the role of serum antigen testing? When is lumbar puncture indicated? What are the clinical factors that influence treatment decisions? What is the recommended treatment?
- In which areas of the country is histoplasmosis most prevalent? What occupations and recreational activities are associated with increased risk of exposure? What is the significance of asymptomatic infection? What are the clinical findings in pulmonary histoplasmosis? Discuss the role of antigen testing, polymerase chain reaction, and cultures for diagnosis. Which patients are candidates for treatment with itraconazole versus amphotericin B?
- What is coccidioidomycosis (Valley fever), and where does it occur? What clinical features might prompt consideration of this disease? How is it diagnosed and treated? How should the results of complement fixation antibody testing be interpreted in the diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis? In areas of the country where coccidioidomycosis is common, how is a pulmonary cocci nodule distinguished from lung cancer?
- What are the clinical and radiographic features of pulmonary aspergillosis? What other parts of the respiratory tract are involved? Do patients treated for severe fungal pulmonary disease recover pulmonary function? What are the roles of serology and inflammatory markers for diagnosis and monitoring response to therapy? What are the treatment options for aspergilloma and the various forms of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis?
- What are the risk factors and clinical and radiographic features of Pneumocystis pneumonia? What are the roles of direct fluorescent antibody staining, bronchoalveolar lavage, polymerase chain reaction, and serum assay for beta-D-glucan in the diagnosis of Pneumocystis pneumonia? What are the recommended treatments for Pneumocystis pneumonia in patients with and without HIV infection?
- Does Candida cause primary pneumonia? When Candida is isolated from sputum or bronchial specimens, what is the appropriate response? How should disseminated candidiasis with pulmonary or pleural involvement be managed?
- What emerging respiratory fungal pathogens have been described? What new antifungal drugs are being developed to combat emerging pathogens and antimicrobial resistance?
- What novel tests show promise to aid in the detection of fungal infections of the respiratory tract? How do the novel tests compare with standard tests in terms of reliability, cost, turnaround time, and other measures? What are the statuses of breath testing and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry for diagnosing fungal infections of the respiratory tract?
Initial references to consider:
- Avni T, Levy I, Sprecher H, Yahav D, Leibovici L, Paul M. Diagnostic accuracy of PCR alone compared to galactomannan in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid for diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis: a systematic review. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50(11):3652-3658.
- Babady NE, Buckwalter SP, Hall L, Le Febre KM, Binnicker MJ, Wengenack NL. Detection of Blastomyces dermatitidis and Histoplasma capsulatum from culture isolates and clinical specimens by use of real-time PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49(9):3204-3208.
- Brizendine KD, Baddley JW, Pappas PG. Pulmonary cryptococcosis. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;32(6):727-734. [Note: This entire issue is devoted to pulmonary fungal infections.]
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Increase in reported coccidioidomycosis—United States, 1998-2011. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2013;62(12):217-221.
- Chambers ST, Scott-Thomas A, Epton M. Developments in novel breath tests for bacterial and fungal pulmonary infection. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2012;18(3):228-232.
- Chowdhary A, Randhawa HS, Gaur SN, et al. Schizophyllum commune as an emerging fungal pathogen: a review and report of two cases. Mycoses. 2013;56(1):1-10.
- Gilroy SA, Bennett NJ. Pneumocystis pneumonia. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;32(6):775-782.
- Hage CA, Knox KS, Wheat LJ. Endemic mycoses: overlooked causes of community acquired pneumonia. Respir Med. 2012;106(6):769-776.
- Lease ED, Alexander BD. Fungal diagnostics in pneumonia. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;32(6):663-672.
- Ledtke C, Tomford JW, Jain A, Isada CM, van Duin D. Clinical presentation and management of histoplasmosis in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012;60(2):265-270.
- Lu Y, Ling G, Qiang C, et al. PCR diagnosis of Pneumocystis pneumonia: a bivariate meta-analysis. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49(12):4361-4363.
- Ohba H, Miwa S, Shirai M, et al. Clinical characteristics and prognosis of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. Respir Med. 2012;106(5):724-729.
- Onishi A, Sugiyama D, Kogata Y, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of serum 1,3-β-D-glucan for pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, invasive candidiasis, and invasive aspergillosis: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50(1):7-15.
- Paiva JA, Pereira JM. New antifungal antibiotics. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2013;26(2):168-174.
- Smith JA, Kauffman CA. Pulmonary fungal infections. Respirology. 2012;17(6):913-926.
Websites to consider:
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention page on fungal diseases. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/fungal(www.cdc.gov)/.
- Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines for various fungal infections. Available at http://www.idsociety.org/Organism/(www.idsociety.org).
- National Institutes of Health. Latest federally approved guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults, adolescents, and children, with sections on fungal infections. Available at http://www.aidsinfo.nih.gov(www.aidsinfo.nih.gov).
Section 4: Respiratory Infections in Immigrants
Example case: Mary, a 27-year-old woman, presents with dry cough, fever, anterior chest discomfort, and urticaria for 7 days. Her cough is most bothersome in the early morning. She immigrated to the United States 18 months ago, and recently returned after visiting relatives in South America. Results of head and neck examination are normal, and her lungs are clear on auscultation. Hemogram reveals eosinophilia, and a chest x-ray shows several round pulmonary infiltrates measuring 5 to 10 mm bilaterally. Stool study results are negative, but laboratory analysis of respiratory secretions is positive for Ascaris larvae.
Key questions to consider:
- Other than tuberculosis, what are the most common respiratory infections seen in immigrants to the United States and in those individuals returning from travel to different areas of the world? Discuss melioidosis, helminthic infections (eg, echinococcosis, schistosomiasis, acariasis), leptospirosis, pulmonary manifestations of malaria, and other relevant diseases. For each condition, what is the typical presentation, approach to diagnosis, and recommended treatment?
- What types of screening are recommended for these infections when providing care for a recent immigrant to the United States?
- When treating respiratory infections in immigrants, how much of a concern is antimicrobial resistance? Is antimicrobial resistance a problem in nonindustrialized countries; if so, what is the etiology?
- What are the most common gaps in immunization that affect susceptibility to respiratory infection in immigrants from various parts of the world? What programs are in place to help immigrants to the United States catch up on necessary immunizations?
- What are the most significant etiologies of immunodeficiency in immigrants? How much does immunodeficiency depend on the immigrant’s place of origin? To what degree does malnutrition affect immune function in the immigrant population? What other socioeconomic, geographic, cultural, and public health conditions might increase susceptibility to respiratory infections?
- What emerging pathogens and zoonoses should family physicians recognize as potential etiologies of respiratory infections in immigrants and world travelers? Discuss H1N1 pandemic influenza, H5N1 and H7N9 avian influenzas, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), hantavirus infection, and other infectious agents and conditions as appropriate.
Initial references to consider:
- Anstey NM, Douglas NM, Poespoprodjo JR, Price RN. Plasmodium vivax: clinical spectrum, risk factors and pathogenesis. Adv Parasitol. 2012;80:151-201.
- Burivong W, Wu X, Saenkote W, Stern EJ. Thoracic radiologic manifestations of melioidosis. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 2012;41(6):199-209.
- Burke RL, Kronmann KC, Daniels CC, et al. A review of zoonotic disease surveillance supported by the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center. Zoonoses Public Health. 2012;59(3):164-175.
- Deroost K, Tyberghein A, Lays N, et al. Hemozoin induces lung inflammation and correlates with malaria-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2013;48(5):589-600.
- Marchiori E, Lourenço S, Setúbal S, Zanetti G, Gasparetto TD, Hochhegger B. Clinical and imaging manifestations of hemorrhagic pulmonary leptospirosis: a state-of-the-art review. Lung. 2011;189(1):1-9.
- Meumann EM, Cheng AC, Ward L, Currie BJ. Clinical features and epidemiology of melioidosis pneumonia: results from a 21-year study and review of the literature. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;54(3):362-369.
- Pavlin BI, Kozarsky P, Cetron MS. Acute pulmonary schistosomiasis in travelers: case report and review of the literature. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2012;10(5-6):209-219.
- Schweizer HP. Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in Burkholderia pseudomallei: implications for treatment of melioidosis. Future Microbiol. 2012;7(12):1389-1399.
- Taylor WR, Hanson J, Turner GD, White NJ, Dondorp AM. Respiratory manifestations of malaria. Chest. 2012;142(2):492-505.
Websites to consider:
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
- National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/ncezid/index.html(www.cdc.gov).
- Division of Global Migration and Quarantine. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/ncezid/dgmq/(www.cdc.gov).
- Immigrant and Refugee Health. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/immigrantrefugeehealth/(www.cdc.gov).