ITEMS IN FPM WITH MESH TERM:
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
ABSTRACT: Nearly one-half of persons with chronic kidney disease have diabetes mellitus. Diabetes accounted for 44 percent of new cases of kidney failure in 2008. Diabetic nephropathy, also called diabetic kidney disease, is associated with significant macrovascular risk, and is the leading cause of kidney failure in the United States. Diabetic nephropathy usually manifests after 10 years’ duration of type 1 diabetes, but may be present at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Screening for microalbuminuria should be initiated five years after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes and at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Screening for microalbuminuria with a spot urine albumin/creatinine ratio identifies the early stages of nephropathy. Positive results on two of three tests (30 to 300 mg of albumin per g of creatinine) in a six-month period meet the diagnostic criteria for diabetic nephropathy. Because diabetic nephropathy may also manifest as a decreased glomerular filtration rate or an increased serum creatinine level, these tests should be included in annual monitoring. Preventive measures include using an angiotensin- converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker in normotensive persons. Optimizing glycemic control and using an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker to control blood pressure slow the progression of diabetic nephropathy, but implementing intensive glycemic and blood pressure control is associated with more adverse outcomes. Low-protein diets may also decrease adverse renal outcomes and mortality in persons with diabetic nephropathy.
Treating Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder in the Medical Office - Curbside Consultation
ABSTRACT: Diabetic ketoacidosis is characterized by a serum glucose level greater than 250 mg per dL, a pH less than 7.3, a serum bicarbonate level less than 18 mEq per L, an elevated serum ketone level, and dehydration. Insulin deficiency is the main precipitating factor. Diabetic ketoacidosis can occur in persons of all ages, with 14 percent of cases occurring in persons older than 70 years, 23 percent in persons 51 to 70 years of age, 27 percent in persons 30 to 50 years of age, and 36 percent in persons younger than 30 years. The case fatality rate is 1 to 5 percent. About one-third of all cases are in persons without a history of diabetes mellitus. Common symptoms include polyuria with polydipsia (98 percent), weight loss (81 percent), fatigue (62 percent), dyspnea (57 percent), vomiting (46 percent), preceding febrile illness (40 percent), abdominal pain (32 percent), and polyphagia (23 percent). Measurement of A1C, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, serum glucose, electrolytes, pH, and serum ketones; complete blood count; urinalysis; electrocardiography; and calculation of anion gap and osmolar gap can differentiate diabetic ketoacidosis from hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, gastroenteritis, starvation ketosis, and other metabolic syndromes, and can assist in diagnosing comorbid conditions. Appropriate treatment includes administering intravenous fluids and insulin, and monitoring glucose and electrolyte levels. Cerebral edema is a rare but severe complication that occurs predominantly in children. Physicians should recognize the signs of diabetic ketoacidosis for prompt diagnosis, and identify early symptoms to prevent it. Patient education should include information on how to adjust insulin during times of illness and how to monitor glucose and ketone levels, as well as information on the importance of medication compliance.
The Adult Well Male Examination - Article
ABSTRACT: The adult well male examination should incorporate evidence-based guidance toward the promotion of optimal health and well-being, including screening tests shown to improve health outcomes. Nearly one-third of men report not having a primary care physician. The medical history should include substance use; risk factors for sexually transmitted infections; diet and exercise habits; and symptoms of depression. Physical examination should include blood pressure and body mass index screening. Men with sustained blood pressures greater than 135/80 mm Hg should be screened for diabetes mellitus. Lipid screening is warranted in all men 35 years and older, and in men 20 to 34 years of age who have cardiovascular risk factors. Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm should occur between 65 and 75 years of age in men who have ever smoked. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening men for osteoporosis or skin cancer. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force has provisionally recommended against prostate-specific antigen–based screening for prostate cancer because the harms of testing and overtreatment outweigh potential benefits. Screening for colorectal cancer should begin at 50 years of age in men of average risk and continue until at least 75 years of age. Screening should be performed by high-sensitivity fecal occult blood testing every year, flexible sigmoidoscopy every five years combined with annual fecal occult blood testing, or colonoscopy every 10 years. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against screening for testicular cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Immunizations should be recommended according to guidelines from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Not Using Insulin - Cochrane for Clinicians
Should the Target A1C Level Be Less Than 7 Percent? No: The Case for Modest Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes - Editorials: Controversies in Family Medicine
Should the Target A1C Level Be Less Than 7 Percent? Yes: This Should Be the Target for Most Patients - Editorials: Controversies in Family Medicine