Items in FPM with MESH term: Family Practice
ABSTRACT: Vaginal birth after cesarean section is common in this country. Physicians providing obstetric care should be aware of the potential complications. Uterine rupture occurs in approximately one of every 67 to 500 women (with one prior low-transverse incision) undergoing a trial of labor for vaginal birth after cesarean section. Rupture poses serious risks to mother and infant. There are no reliable predictors or unequivocal clinical manifestations of rupture, so physicians must maintain a high index of suspicion for possible rupture, especially in the presence of fetal bradycardia or other evidence of fetal distress. Management is surgery for prompt delivery of the infant and control of maternal hemorrhage. Newborns often require admission to an intensive care nursery. Prevention of poor outcomes depends on thorough anticipation and preparation. The physicians and the delivery institution should be prepared to provide emergency surgical and neonatal care in the event of uterine rupture.
Lactose Intolerance - Article
ABSTRACT: Persons with lactose intolerance are unable to digest significant amounts of lactose because of a genetically inadequate amount of the enzyme lactase. Common symptoms include abdominal pain and bloating, excessive flatus, and watery stool following the ingestion of foods containing lactose. Lactase deficiency is present in up to 15 percent of persons of northern European descent, up to 80 percent of blacks and Latinos, and up to 100 percent of American Indians and Asians. A sizable number of adults believe they are lactose intolerant but do not actually have impaired lactose digestion, and some persons with lactase deficiency can tolerate moderate amounts of ingested lactose. A diagnosis of lactose intolerance can usually be made with a careful history supported by dietary manipulation. If necessary, diagnosis can be confirmed by using a breath hydrogen or lactose tolerance test. Treatment consists primarily of avoiding lactose-containing foods. Lactase enzyme supplements may be helpful. The degree of lactose malabsorption varies greatly among patients with lactose intolerance, but most of them can ingest up to 12 oz of milk daily without symptoms. Lactose-intolerant patients must ensure adequate calcium intake.
ABSTRACT: The National High Blood Pressure Education Program's Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy recently issued a report implicating hypertension as a complication in 6 to 8 percent of pregnancies. Hypertension in pregnancy is related to one of four conditions: (1) chronic hypertension that predates pregnancy; (2) preeclampsia-eclampsia, a serious, systemic syndrome of elevated blood pressure, proteinuria and other findings; (3) chronic hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia; and (4) gestational hypertension, or nonproteinuric hypertension of pregnancy. Edema is no longer a criterion for preeclampsia, and the definition of blood pressure elevation is 140/90 mm Hg or higher. Patients with gestational hypertension have previously unrecognized chronic hypertension, emerging preeclampsia or transient hypertension of pregnancy, an obstetrically benign condition. Because distinguishing among these conditions can be done only in retrospect, clinical management of gestational hypertension consists of repeated evaluations to look for signs of emerging preeclampsia. Women with chronic hypertension should be followed for evidence of fetal growth restriction or superimposed preeclampsia. Management options for chronic hypertension in most women include discontinuing antihypertensive medications during pregnancy, switching to methyldopa or continuing previous antihypertensive therapy.
ABSTRACT: As many as 30 million Americans have migraine headaches. The impact on patients and their families can be tremendous, and treatment of migraines can present diagnostic and therapeutic challenges for family physicians. Abortive treatment options include nonspecific and migraine-specific therapy. Nonspecific therapies include analgesics (aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and opiates), adjunctive therapies (antiemetics and sedatives), and other nonspecific medications (intranasal lidocaine or steroids). Migraine-specific abortive therapies include ergotamine and its derivatives, and triptans. Complementary and alternative therapies can also be used to abort the headache or enhance the efficacy of another therapeutic modality. Treatment choices for acute migraine should be based on headache severity, migraine frequency, associated symptoms, and comorbidities.
ABSTRACT: Family physicians must proactively address the sexual health of their patients. Effective sexual health care should address wellness considerations in addition to infections, contraception, and sexual dysfunction. However, physicians consistently underestimate the prevalence of sexual concerns in their patients. By allocating time to discuss sexual health during office visits, high-risk sexual behaviors that can cause sexually transmitted diseases, unintended pregnancies, and unhealthy sexual decisions may be reduced. Developing a routine way to elicit the patient's sexual history that avoids judgmental attitudes and asks the patient for permission to discuss sexual function will make it easier to gather the necessary information. Successful integration of sexual health care into family practice can decrease morbidity and mortality, and enhance well-being and longevity in the patient.
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome - Article
ABSTRACT: Acute respiratory distress syndrome is the clinical manifestation of severe, acute lung injury. It is characterized by the acute onset of diffuse, bilateral pulmonary infiltrates secondary to noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, refractory hypoxia, and decreased lung compliance. Acute respiratory distress syndrome occurs most frequently in the setting of sepsis, aspiration of gastric contents, trauma, or multiple transfusions. Its complex pathophysiology involves an inciting local or systemic event that initiates pulmonary endothelial and epithelial damage and subsequent increased permeability. Tachypnea, hypoxia, and respiratory alkalosis are typical early clinical manifestations, and they are usually followed by the appearance of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and respiratory failure within 48 hours. Early identification and treatment of the underlying disorder, along with aggressive supportive care, are essential. Experimental therapies, including those using nitric oxide and surfactant, have not been shown to improve mortality in patients with ARDS, but new therapeutic approaches such as low-volume ventilation have been shown to decrease mortality. Many patients who survive ARDS have permanent, mild to moderate impairment of lung function. Quality of life after hospitalization with ARDS may be poorer than that in similar patients without ARDS.
Autoimmune Bullous Dermatoses: A Review - Article
ABSTRACT: Bullous dermatoses can be debilitating and possibly fatal. A selection of autoimmune blistering diseases, including pemphigus vulgaris, paraneoplastic pemphigus, bullous pemphigoid, cicatricial pemphigoid, dermatitis herpetiformis and linear IgA dermatosis are reviewed. Pemphigus vulgaris usually starts in the oral mucosa followed by blistering of the skin, which is often painful. Paraneoplastic pemphigus is associated with neoplasms, most commonly of lymphoid tissue, but also WaldenstrÃ¶m's macroglobulinemia, sarcomas, thymomas and Castleman's disease. Bullous pemphigoid is characterized by large, tense bullae, but may begin as an urticarial eruption. Cicatricial (scarring) pemphigoid presents with severe, erosive lesions of the mucous membranes with skin involvement in one third of patients focused around the head and upper trunk. Dermatitis herpetiformis is intensely pruritic and chronic, characterized by papulovesicles and urticarial wheals on the extensor surfaces in a grouped or herpetiform, symmetric distribution. Linear IgA dermatosis is clinically similar to dermatitis herpetiformis, but it is not associated with gluten-sensitive enteropathy as is dermatitis herpetiformis.
The Adult Neck Mass - Article
ABSTRACT: Family physicians frequently encounter neck masses in adult patients. A careful medical history should be obtained, and a thorough physical examination should be performed. The patient's age and the location, size, and duration of the mass are important pieces of information. Inflammatory and infectious causes of neck masses, such as cervical adenitis and cat-scratch disease, are common in young adults. Congenital masses, such as branchial anomalies and thyroglossal duct cysts, must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Neoplasms (benign and malignant) are more likely to be present in older adults. Fine-needle aspiration and biopsy and contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scanning are the best techniques for evaluating these masses. An otolaryngology consultation for endoscopy and possible excisional biopsy should be obtained when a neck mass persists beyond four to six weeks after a single course of a broad-spectrum antibiotic.
Electrosurgery for the Skin - Article
ABSTRACT: The purposes of electrosurgery are to destroy benign and malignant lesions, control bleeding, and cut or excise tissue. The major modalities in electrosurgery are electrodesiccation, fulguration, electrocoagulation, and electrosection. Electrosurgery can be used for incisional techniques that produce full-thickness excision of nevi, for shave techniques that produce partial-thickness removal of superficial lesions, and for removing vascular lesions such as hemangiomas or pyogenic granulomas. The correct output power can be determined by starting low and increasing the power until the desired outcome is attained (destruction, coagulation, or cutting). Smaller cherry angiomas can be electrocoagulated lightly. Larger cherry angiomas may be easier to treat by shaving them first, then electrocoagulating or desiccating the base. The elevated portion of pyogenic granulomas can be shaved off with a scalpel or a loop electrode using a cutting/coagulation current. The base of the lesion is curetted to remove the remaining tissue and then electrodesiccated. Complications such as burns, shocks, and transmission of infection can be prevented by careful use of the electrosurgical equipment.
Acute Dyspnea in the Office - Article
ABSTRACT: Respiratory difficulty is a common presenting complaint in the outpatient primary care setting. Because patients may first seek care by calling their physician's office, telephone triage plays a role in the early management of dyspnea. Once the patient is in the office, the initial goal of assessment is to determine the severity of the dyspnea with respect to the need for oxygenation and intubation. Unstable patients typically present with abnormal vital signs, altered mental status, hypoxia, or unstable arrhythmia, and require supplemental oxygen, intravenous access and, possibly, intubation. Subsequent management depends on the differential diagnosis established by a proper history, physical examination, and ancillary studies. Dyspnea is most commonly caused by respiratory and cardiac disorders. Other causes may be upper airway obstruction, metabolic acidosis, a psychogenic disorder, or a neuromuscular condition. Differential diagnoses in children include bronchiolitis, croup, epiglottitis, and foreign body aspiration. Pertinent history findings include cough, sore throat, chest pain, edema, and orthopnea. The physical examination should focus on vital signs and the heart, lungs, neck, and lower extremities. Significant physical signs are fever, rales, wheezing, cyanosis, stridor, or absent breath sounds. Diagnostic work-up includes pulse oximetry, complete blood count, electrocardiography, and chest radiography. If the patient is admitted to the emergency department or hospital, blood gases, ventilation-perfusion scan, D-dimer tests, and spiral computed tomography can help clarify the diagnosis. In a stable patient, management depends on the underlying etiology of the dyspnea.