ITEMS IN FPM WITH MESH TERM:
ABSTRACT: Thousands of young athletes receive preparticipation evaluations each year in the United States. One objective of these evaluations is to detect underlying cardiovascular abnormalities that may predispose an athlete to sudden death. The leading cardiovascular causes of sudden death in young athletes include hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, congenital coronary artery anomalies, repolarization abnormalities, and Marfan syndrome. Because these abnormalities are rare and difficult to detect clinically, it is recommended that family physicians use standardized history questions and examination techniques. Athletes, accompanied by their parents, if possible, should be asked about family history of cardiac disease and sudden death; personal cardiac history; and exercise-related symptoms, specifically syncope, chest pain, and palpitations. The physical examination should include blood pressure measurement, palpation of radial and femoral pulses, dynamic cardiac auscultation, and evaluation for Marfan syndrome. Athletes with "red flag" signs or symptoms may need activity restriction, special testing, and referral if the diagnosis is unclear.
ABSTRACT: Most primary care physicians report at least one emergency presenting to their office per year. Asthma, anaphylaxis, shock, seizures, and cardiac arrest are among the most common adult and childhood emergencies in the office setting. Most offices are not fully prepared for these medical emergencies. Practices can initiate a preparedness program by purchasing emergency equipment and medications that reflect the spectrum of anticipated emergencies in their patient populations, the practitioners' skills, and the distance to the nearest emergency department. Physicians and staff should make every effort to maintain current certification in basic or advanced lifesaving courses. Offices may also wish to create a written emergency protocol that outlines the steps to be followed in the event of a medical office emergency. By preparing for medical emergencies with the correct equipment, education, and protocols, offices can greatly decrease the risk of an unfavorable outcome.
ABSTRACT: Substance abuse in adolescents is undertreated in the United States. Family physicians are well positioned to recognize substance use in their patients and to take steps to address the issue before use escalates. Comorbid mental disorders among adolescents with substance abuse include depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, and attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder. Office-, home-, and school-based drug testing is not routinely recommended. Screening tools for adolescent substance abuse include the CRAFFT questionnaire. Family therapy is crucial in the management of adolescent substance use disorders. Although family physicians may be able to treat adolescents with substance use disorders in the office setting, it is often necessary and prudent to refer patients to one or more appropriate consultants who specialize specifically in substance use disorders, psychology, or psychiatry. Treatment options include anticipatory guidance, brief therapeutic counseling, school-based drug-counseling programs, outpatient substance abuse clinics, day treatment programs, and inpatient and residential programs. Working within community and family contexts, family physicians can activate and oversee the system of professionals and treatment components necessary for optimal management of substance misuse in adolescents.
ABSTRACT: This article provides answers to many questions medical students ask about the specialty of family medicine. It was developed through the collaborative efforts of several family medicine organizations, including the American Academy of Family Physicians, the Society of Teachers of Family Medicine, the Association of Family Medicine Residency Directors, and the Association of Departments of Family Medicine. The article discusses the benefits of primary care and family medicine, the education and training of family physicians, the scope of medical practice in the specialty, and issues related to lifestyle and medical student debt.
Somatoform Disorders - Article
ABSTRACT: The somatoform disorders are a group of psychiatric disorders that cause unexplained physical symptoms. They include somatization disorder (involving multisystem physical symptoms), undifferentiated somatoform disorder (fewer symptoms than somatization disorder), conversion disorder (voluntary motor or sensory function symptoms), pain disorder (pain with strong psychological involvement), hypochondriasis (fear of having a life-threatening illness or condition), body dysmorphic disorder (preoccupation with a real or imagined physical defect), and somatoform disorder not otherwise specified (used when criteria are not dearly met for one of the other somatoform disorders). These disorders should be considered early in the evaluation of patients with unexplained symptoms to prevent unnecessary interventions and testing. Treatment success can be enhanced by discussing the possibility of a somatoform disorder with the patient early in the evaluation process, limiting unnecessary diagnostic and medical treatments, focusing on the management of the disorder rather than its cure, using appropriate medications and psychotherapy for comorbidities, maintaining a psychoeducational and collaborative relationship with patients, and referring patients to mental health professionals when appropriate.
ABSTRACT: Physicians are frequently involved in the assessment of impairment and disability as the treating physician, in consultation, or as an independent medical examiner. The key elements of this assessment include a comprehensive clinical evaluation and appropriate standardized testing to establish the diagnosis, characterize the severity of impairment, and communicate the patient's abilities, restrictions, and need for accommodation. In some cases, a functional capacity evaluation performed by a physical or occupational therapist or a neuropsychological evaluation performed by a neuropsychologist may be required to further clarify the functional capacity of the patient. The results of the impairment evaluation should be communicated in clear, simple terms to nonmedical professionals representing the benefits systems. These individuals make the final determination on the extent of disability and eligibility for benefits and compensation under that particular benefits system.
ABSTRACT: Family physicians treat an increasing number of children with metabolic disorders identified through newborn screening, and they are often the first line of defense in responding to an abnormal screening result. How the family physician chooses to interpret information from the screening and what he or she chooses to tell the family affects the parent-child relationship, as well as the infant's medical and developmental outcomes. Family physicians must, therefore, be familiar with the current state of expanded newborn screening to effectively communicate results and formulate interventions. They also must recognize signs of metabolic disorders that may not be detected by newborn screening or that may not be a part of newborn screening in their state. For every infant identified with a metabolic disorder, 12 to 60 additional infants will receive a false-positive screening result. One recommendation for communicating results to parents is to explain what the initial and follow-up findings mean, even if the diagnosis is not confirmed. For infants with true-positive results, long-term follow-up involves regular medical examinations, communication with a metabolic treatment center, and developmental and neuropsychological testing to detect possible associated disorders in time for early intervention. This article provides a description of metabolic disorders included in expanded newborn screening programs; a list of disorders screened for in each state; and resources for obtaining ACTion sheets (guidelines for responding to newborn screening results), fact sheets, and emergency and acute illness protocols.
ABSTRACT: Despite widespread support for the concept of advance care planning, few Americans have a living will or a health care proxy. Advance care planning offers the patient the opportunity to have an ongoing dialog with his or her relatives and family physician regarding choices for care at the end of life. Ultimately, advance care planning is designed to clarify the patient's questions, fears and values, and thus improve the patient's well-being by reducing the frequency and magnitude of overtreatment and undertreatment as defined by the patient. An advance directive consists of oral and written instructions about a person's future medical care in the event he or she becomes unable to communicate. There are two types of advance directives: a living will and a health care power of attorney. Family physicians are in an ideal position to discuss advance care plans with their patients. By introducing the subject during a routine office visit, physicians can facilitate a structured discussion of the patient's wishes for end-of-life care. At the next visit, further discussion can include the patient and his or her proxy. A document that clearly delineates the patient's wishes is then developed. The patient should be assured that the directive can be changed at any time according to the patient's wishes. The advance care plan should be reviewed periodically to make sure the specifications continue to be in line with the patient's wishes.
Common Peripartum Emergencies - Article
ABSTRACT: Peripartum emergencies occur in patients with no known risk factors. When the well-being of the fetus is in question, the fetal heart rate pattern may offer etiologic clues. Repetitive late decelerations may signify uteroplacental insufficiency, and a sinusoidal pattern may indicate severe fetal distress. Repetitive variable decelerations suggesting umbilical cord compression may be relieved by amnioinfusion. Regardless of the etiology of the nonreassuring fetal heart pattern, measures to improve fetal oxygenation should be attempted while options for delivery are considered. Massive obstetric hemorrhage requires prompt action. Clinical signs, such as painless bleeding, uterine tenderness and nonreassuring fetal heart patterns, may help to differentiate causes of vaginal bleeding that may or may not require emergency cesarean delivery. The causes of postpartum hemorrhage include uterine atony, vaginal or cervical laceration, and retained placenta. The challenge of managing shoulder dystocia is to effect a rapid delivery while avoiding neonatal and maternal morbidity. The McRoberts maneuver has been shown to be the safest and most successful technique for relieving shoulder dystocia. Eclampsia responds best to magnesium sulfate, supportive care and supplemental hydralazine or labetalol as needed for severe hypertension.
Evaluating Patients for Return to Work - Article
ABSTRACT: The family physician is often instrumental in the process of returning a patient to the workplace after injury or illness. Initially, the physician must gain an understanding of the job's demands through detailed discussions with the patient, the patient's work supervisor or the occupational medicine staff at the patient's place of employment. Other helpful sources of information include job demand analysis evaluations and the Dictionary of Occupational Titles. With an adequate knowledge of job requirements and patient limitations, the physician should document specific workplace restrictions, ensuring a safe and progressive reentry to work. Occupational rehabilitation programs such as work hardening may be prescribed, if necessary. If the physician is unsure of the patient's status, a functional capacity evaluation should be considered. The family physician should also be familiar with the Americans with Disabilities Act as it applies to the patient's "fitness" to perform the "essential tasks" of the patient's job.