ITEMS IN FPM WITH MESH TERM:
Digitalis for Treatment of Congestive Heart Failure in Patients in Sinus Rhythm - Cochrane for Clinicians
Outpatient vs. Inpatient Treatment of Community-Acquired Pneumonia - Point-of-Care Guides
ABSTRACT: Poisoning is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, with several million episodes reported annually. Acute medication poisonings account for nearly one half of all poisonings reported in the United States and should be considered in persons with an acute change in mental status. The initial approach to a person who has been poisoned should be to assess the airway, breathing, and circulation, and to take a thorough history. Less than 1 percent of poisonings are fatal; therefore, management in most cases is supportive unless a specific antidote is available. Single-dose activated charcoal is the gastrointestinal decontamination modality of choice, but should not be used universally. Toxidromes are constellations of symptoms commonly encountered with certain drug classes, including anticholinergics, cholinergics, opioids, and sympathomimetics. Evaluation of possible medication poisonings should include basic laboratory studies, such as a complete metabolic profile, to determine electrolyte imbalances and liver and renal function. Most other laboratory studies should be performed based on clinical presentation and history. Ongoing treatment of unstable patients with toxic medication ingestions should focus on correcting hypoxia and acidosis while maintaining adequate circulation. These patients can have rapid decline in mental or hemodynamic status even when they appear to be compensating. Children can experience more profound effects from small amounts of medication. Disposition of a person who has been poisoned warrants careful consideration of multiple factors, and those exhibiting signs or symptoms of toxicity must be monitored longer.
Management of COPD Exacerbations - Article
ABSTRACT: Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease contribute to the high mortality rate associated with the disease. Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of multiple interventions. The first step in outpatient management should be to increase the dosage of inhaled short-acting bronchodilators. Combining ipratropium and albuterol is beneficial in relieving dyspnea. Oral corticosteroids are likely beneficial, especially for patients with purulent sputum. The use of antibiotics reduces the risk of treatment failure and mortality in moderately or severely ill patients. Physicians should consider antibiotics for patients with purulent sputum and for patients who have inadequate symptom relief with bronchodilators and corticosteroids. The choice of antibiotic should be guided by local resistance patterns and the patient's recent history of antibiotic use. Hospitalized patients with exacerbations should receive regular doses of short-acting bronchodilators, continuous supplemental oxygen, antibiotics, and systemic corticosteroids. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation or invasive mechanical ventilation is indicated in patients with worsening acidosis or hypoxemia.
ABSTRACT: Glycemic control in hospitalized patients who are not in intensive care remains unsatisfactory. Despite persistent expert recommendations urging its abandonment, the use of sliding-scale insulin remains pervasive in U.S. hospitals. Evidence for the effectiveness of sliding-scale insulin is lacking after more than 40 years of use. New physiologic subcutaneous insulin protocols use basal, nutritional, and correctional insulin. The initial total daily dose of subcutaneous insulin is calculated using a factor of 0.3 to 0.6 units per kg body weight, with one half given as long-acting insulin (the basal insulin dose), and the other one half divided daily over three meals as short-acting insulin doses (nutritional insulin doses). A correctional insulin dose provides a final insulin adjustment based on the preprandial glucose value. This correctional dose resembles a sliding scale, but is only a small fine-tuning of therapy, as opposed to traditional sliding-scale insulin alone. Insulin sensitivity, nutritional intake, and total daily dosing review can alter the physiologic insulin-dosing schedule. Prospective trials have demonstrated reductions in hyperglycemic measurements, hypoglycemia, and adjusted hospital length of stay when physiologic subcutaneous insulin protocols are used. Transitions in care require special considerations and attention to glycemic control medications. Changing the sliding-scale insulin culture requires a multidisciplinary effort to improve patient safety and outcomes.
Glucose Control in Hospitalized Patients - Article
ABSTRACT: Evidence indicates that hospitalized patients with hyperglycemia do not benefit from tight blood glucose control. Maintaining a blood glucose level of less than 180 mg per dL (9.99 mmol per L) will minimize symptoms of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia without adversely affecting patient-oriented health outcomes. In the absence of modifying factors, physicians should continue patients’ at-home diabetes mellitus medications and randomly check glucose levels once daily. Sulfonylureas should be withheld to avoid hypoglycemia in patients with limited caloric intake. Patients with cardiovascular conditions may benefit from temporarily stopping treatment with thiazolidinediones to avoid precipitating heart failure. Metformin should be temporarily withheld in patients who have worsening renal function or who will undergo an imaging study that uses contrast. When patients need to be treated with insulin in the short term, using a long-acting basal insulin combined with a short-acting insulin before meals (with the goal of keeping blood glucose less than 180 mg per dL) better approximates normal physiology and uses fewer nursing resources than sliding-scale insulin approaches. Most studies have found that infusion with glucose, insulin, and potassium does not improve mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction should have moderate control of blood glucose using home regimens or basal insulin with correctional doses.
ABSTRACT: Subopitmal glycemic control in hospitalized patients with type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus can have adverse consequences, including increased neurologic ischemia, delayed wound healing and an increased infection rate. Poor glycemic control can also affect the outcome of the primary illness. If possible, hospitalized diabetic patients should continue their previous antihyperglycemic treatment regimen. Decreased physical activity and the stress of illness often lead to hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes. When indicated, insulin is given either as a supplement to usual therapy or as a temporary substitute. The overall benefit of the traditional sliding-scale insulin regimen has been questioned. Insulin supplementation given according to an algorithm may be a logical alternative. Any antihyperglycemic regimen should be administered and monitored in a manner coincident with the intake of food or other sources of calories. Factors that can alter glycemic control acutely, including specific medical conditions and medications, should be identified and anticipated.
Hospitalist Concept: Another Dangerous Trend - Editorials