ITEMS IN FPM WITH MESH TERM:
ABSTRACT: Secondary hypertension is a type of hypertension with an underlying, potentially correctable cause. A secondary etiology may be suggested by symptoms (e.g., flushing and sweating suggestive of pheochromocytoma), examina- tion findings (e.g., a renal bruit suggestive of renal artery stenosis), or laboratory abnormalities (e.g., hypokalemia suggestive of aldosteronism). Secondary hypertension also should be considered in patients with resistant hyper- tension, and early or late onset of hypertension. The prevalence of secondary hypertension and the most common etiologies vary by age group. Approximately 5 to 10 percent of adults with hypertension have a secondary cause. In young adults, particu- larly women, renal artery stenosis caused by fibromuscular dyspla- sia is one of the most common secondary etiologies. Fibromuscular dysplasia can be detected by abdominal magnetic resonance imag- ing or computed tomography. These same imaging modalities can be used to detect atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis, a major cause of secondary hypertension in older adults. In middle-aged adults, aldosteronism is the most common secondary cause of hyperten- sion, and the recommended initial diagnostic test is an aldosterone/ renin ratio. Up to 85 percent of children with hypertension have an identifiable cause, most often renal parenchymal disease. Therefore, all children with confirmed hypertension should have an evaluation for an underlying etiology that includes renal ultrasonography.
What a Patient's Numbers Don't Tell - The Last Word
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Releases New Guidelines for the Treatment of Hypertension - Special Medical Reports
ABSTRACT: Less than 25 percent of patients with hypertension in the United States have their blood pressure under control, mainly because of inadequate or inappropriate therapy and noncompliance. Approximately one half of these treatment failures are related to factors such as cost and adverse effects of medication, complex drug regimens, failure of clinicians to fully realize the benefits of antihypertensive therapy and lack of patient education. Other major causes of unresponsiveness to antihypertensive therapy include "white coat" hypertension, pseudohypertension, obesity, volume overload, excess alcohol intake and sleep apnea, as well as inappropriate antihypertensive drugs and drug combinations, and unfavorable interactions with prescription and other drugs. In many patients, these factors must be dealt with before blood pressure can be controlled.
The Calcium Channel Antagonist Controversy - Editorials
Preventing Congestive Heart Failure - Article
ABSTRACT: The morbidity, mortality and health care costs associated with congestive heart failure make prevention a more attractive public health strategy than treatment. Aggressive management of etiologic factors, including hypertension, coronary artery disease, valvular disease and excessive alcohol intake, can prevent the left ventricular remodeling and dysfunction that lead to heart failure. Early intervention with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in patients with chronic left ventricular dysfunction can prevent, as well as treat, the syndrome. Several intervention strategies in patients with acute myocardial infarction can slow or prevent the left ventricular remodeling process that antedates congestive heart failure. The primary care physician must be alert to the need for aggressive intervention to reduce the burden of heart failure syndrome on the patient and on society.
Current Hypertension Control Is Just Not Good Enough - Editorials
Senile Dementia of the Binswanger's Type - Article
ABSTRACT: Senile dementia of the Binswanger's type is a term used to describe a dementia syndrome characterized by onset in the sixth or seventh decade of life, subcortical neurologic deficits, psychiatric disorders and evidence of hypertension or systemic vascular disease. The status of senile dementia of the Binswanger's type as a distinct entity is a matter of some controversy. The array of neuroimaging abnormalities and clinical findings attributed to this condition overlap with a number of other neuropathologies. Leukoaraiosis, or attenuation of subcortical white matter, seen on computed tomographic scans or magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, is a hallmark of senile dementia of the Binswanger's type. The clinical findings associated with Binswanger's disease are varied but typically include a progressive dementia, depression and "subcortical" dysfunction such as gait abnormalities, rigidity and neurogenic bladder. Treatment is largely supportive and includes a discussion about advanced directives, social support and antidepressant therapy. Control of hypertension and aspirin prophylaxis may help prevent further progression of white matter disease.
ABSTRACT: Both isolated systolic hypertension (>140 mm Hg/<90 mm Hg) and systolic/diastolic hypertension (>140 mm Hg/>90 mm Hg) are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the elderly. Specific antihypertensive drug therapy is available if lifestyle interventions fail to reduce blood pressure to a normal level. Diuretics and beta blockers both reduce the occurrence of adverse events related to cerebrovascular disease; however, diuretics are more effective in reducing events related to coronary heart disease. Treated patients are less likely to develop severe hypertension or congestive heart failure. In most instances, low-dose diuretic therapy should be used as initial antihypertensive therapy in the elderly. A long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker may be used as alternative therapy in elderly patients with isolated systolic hypertension. Trials are being conducted to evaluate the long-term effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin-II receptor blockers in elderly patients with uncomplicated hypertension.
ABSTRACT: Lowering cholesterol can reduce the incidence of coronary heart disease. Treating hypertension reduces overall mortality and is most effective in reducing the risk of coronary heart disease in older patients. Smoking cessation reduces the level of risk to that of nonsmokers within about three years of cessation. Aspirin is likely to be an effective means of primary prevention, but a group in whom treatment is appropriate has yet to be defined. Evidence that supplementation with vitamin A or C reduces the risk of coronary heart disease is inadequate; the data for use of vitamin E are inconclusive. Epidemiologic evidence is sufficient to recommend that most persons increase their levels of physical activity. Lowering homocysteine levels through increased folate intake is a promising but unproven primary prevention strategy. Hormone replacement therapy was associated with reduced incidence of coronary heart disease in epidemiologic studies but was not effective in a secondary prevention trial.