Items in FPM with MESH term: Influenza, Human
Common Infections in Older Adults - Article
ABSTRACT: Infectious diseases account for one third of all deaths in people 65 years and older. Early detection is more difficult in the elderly because the typical signs and symptoms, such as fever and leukocytosis, are frequently absent. A change in mental status or decline in function may be the only presenting problem in an older patient with an infection. An estimated 90 percent of deaths resulting from pneumonia occur in people 65 years and older. Mortality resulting from influenza also occurs primarily in the elderly. Urinary tract infections are the most common cause of bacteremia in older adults. Asymptomatic bacteriuria occurs frequently in the elderly; however, antibiotic treatment does not appear to be efficacious. The recent rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (e.g., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus) is a particular problem in the elderly because they are exposed to infections at higher rates in hospital and institutional settings. Treatment of colonization and active infection is problematic; strict adherence to hygiene practices is necessary to prevent the spread of resistant organisms.
Influenza in the Nursing Home - Article
ABSTRACT: Although influenza affects persons of all ages, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has identified several groups who are at increased risk for complications. One such group is residents of nursing homes or other long-term care facilities. During influenza epidemics, mortality rates among nursing home residents often exceed 5 percent. To lessen the impact of this infection, the influenza vaccine is recommended as the primary way of preventing the illness and its complications. Many studies have shown that vaccination of nursing home residents and staff can significantly decrease rates of hospitalization, pneumonia, and related mortality. When an influenza outbreak occurs in a nursing home, several measures can be implemented by the treating physician. Treatment and prophylaxis can be accomplished using antiviral medications such as amantadine, rimantadine, and oseltamivir. The antiviral medication zanamivir can be used in the treatment of influenza, but not for prophylaxis. Once an outbreak has been established, control measures, including vaccination of unvaccinated residents and employees, and limitations on resident movement and visits, can be implemented.
ABSTRACT: Vaccination is the primary measure for preventing morbidity and mortality from influenza. During the influenza season, family physicians must distinguish influenza from the common cold and other flu-like illnesses. Signs and symptoms of influenza include abrupt onset of fever, severe myalgias, anorexia, sore throat, headache, cough, and malaise. Clinical diagnosis can be difficult or nonspecific when patients have other symptoms (e.g., stuffy nose, sneezing, cough, sore throat) that can be caused by various respiratory viruses or bacterial pathogens. Family physicians can improve diagnostic accuracy by being aware of the epidemiology of influenza. During outbreaks of influenza, commercially available rapid assays can be used to identify type A and B viruses. On average, rapid in-office tests are more than 70 percent sensitive and 90 percent specific for viral antigens. The assays vary in complexity, specificity, sensitivity, time to obtain results, specimen analyzed, and cost. The results of rapid viral tests can guide treatment decisions.
ABSTRACT: Family physicians should be familiar with the various drugs available for treating and preventing viral infections. Part II of this two-part article focuses on agents used to manage influenza and respiratory syncytial virus. Rimantadine and amantadine traditionally have been used to prevent and treat influenza type A infections. The neuraminidase inhibitors zanamivir and oseltamivir have a broadened spectrum of activity in the treatment and prevention of influenza types A and B. Ribavirin has been used in some high-risk infants to treat respiratory syncytial virus infections, and palivizumab can be used for prophylaxis.
ABSTRACT: Avian influenza A (H5N1) first emerged as a global public health threat in 1997 when it caused a major human outbreak in Hong Kong. Endemic in waterfowl and highly virulent in poultry, H5N1 is capable of incidentally infecting humans and other mammals. Although H5N1 is not yet capable of efficient human-to-human transmission, the protean nature of its genome could transform it into the source of the next human influenza pandemic. In the spring of 2006, migrating birds spread the virus from Asia to Europe and Africa. Preparing for a new influenza pandemic involves increasing global influenza surveillance and developing practical strategies for containing outbreaks at the source. Prompt case recognition, isolation, and treatment will be crucial for disease control. Pharmacologic interventions will focus on streamlining the production of vaccine, extending vaccine supplies, stockpiling antiviral drugs such as oseltamivir, and distributing these agents in a timely manner to persons who have the most need. Nonpharmacologic measures will include the use of masks, social distancing, quarantine, travel restrictions, and increasing the emergency capacity of health care systems.
Telephone Triage of Patients with Influenza - Editorials
A Tool For Evaluating Patients With Cold Symptoms - Improving Patient Care