Items in FPM with MESH term: Risk
ABSTRACT: Approximately 65 percent of patients with acute myocardial infarction report experiencing symptoms of depression. Major depression is present in 15 to 22 percent of these patients. Depression is an independent risk factor in the development of and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease in otherwise healthy persons. Persons who are depressed and who have pre-existing cardiovascular disease have a 3.5 times greater risk of death than patients who are not depressed and have cardiovascular disease. Physicians can assess patients for depression by using one of several easily administered and scored self-report inventories, including the SIG E CAPS + mood mnemonic. Cognitive-behavior therapy is the preferred psychologic treatment. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants are the recommended pharmacologic treatment because of the relative absence of effects on the cardiovascular system. The combination of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor with cognitive-behavior therapy is often the most effective treatment for depression in patients with cardiovascular disease.
Using ACE Inhibitors Appropriately - Article
ABSTRACT: When first introduced in 1981, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors were indicated only for treatment of refractory hypertension. Since then, they have been shown to reduce morbidity or mortality in congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus, chronic renal insufficiency, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Pathologies underlying these conditions are, in part, attributable to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Angiotensin II contributes to endothelial dysfunction. altered renal hemodynamics, and vascular and cardiac hypertrophy. ACE inhibitors attenuate these effects. Clinical outcomes of ACE inhibition include decreases in myocardial infarction (fatal and nonfatal), reinfarction, angina, stroke, end-stage renal disease, and morbidity and mortality associated with heart failure. ACE inhibitors are generally well tolerated and have few contraindications. (Am Fam Physician 2002;66:473.)
Update on Exercise Stress Testing - Article
ABSTRACT: Exercise stress testing is an important diagnostic tool for the evaluation of suspected or known cardiac disease. In 2002, the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA) revised their guidelines for exercise testing. Ten categories from the ACC/ AHA 1997 guidelines were modified: ST heart rate adjustment, unstable angina, older patients, acute coronary syndromes, chest pain centers, acute myocardial infarction, asymptomatic patients, valvular heart disease, rhythm disturbances, and hypertension. Adjustment of the ST heart rate can identify myocardial ischemia in asymptomatic patients with elevated cardiac risk. Intermediate- and low-risk patients with unstable angina, acute coronary syndromes, or chest pain should undergo exercise stress testing when clinically stable. Provided they are stable, patients who have had acute myocardial infarction can undergo a submaximal exercise test before discharge or a symptom-limited exercise stress test any time after two to three weeks have elapsed. In asymptomatic patients with cardiac risk factors, the exercise stress test may provide valuable prognostic information. Aortic regurgitation is the only valvular heart disorder in which there is significant evidence that exercise stress testing is useful in management decisions. The stress test also can be used in older patients to identify the presence of coronary artery disease. However, because of other comorbidities, a pharmacologic stress test may be necessary. Exercise stress testing can help physicians successfully evaluate arrhythmia in patients with syncope. The exercise stress test also can help identify patients at risk of developing hypertension if they show an abnormal hypertensive response to exercise.
ABSTRACT: The Seventh American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) Conference on Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy provides guidelines for outpatient management of anticoagulation therapy. The ACCP guidelines recommend short-term warfarin therapy, with the goal of maintaining an International Normalized Ratio (INR) of 2.5 +/- 0.5, after major orthopedic surgery. Therapy for venous thromboembolism includes an INR of 2.5 +/- 0.5, with the length of therapy determined by associated conditions. For patients with atrial fibrillation, the INR is maintained at 2.5 +/- 0.5 indefinitely; for most patients with mechanical valves, the recommended INR is 3.0 +/- 0.5 indefinitely. Use of outpatient low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) is as safe and effective as inpatient unfractionated heparin for treatment of venous thromboembolism. The ACCP recommends starting warfarin with unfractionated heparin or LMWH for at least five days and continuing until a therapeutic INR is achieved. Because patients with venous thromboembolism and cancer who have been treated with LMWH have a survival advantage that extends beyond their venous thromboembolism treatment, the ACCP recommends beginning their therapy with three to six months of LMWH. When invasive procedures require the interruption of oral anticoagulation therapy, recommendations for bridge therapy are determined by balancing the risk of bleeding against the risk of thromboembolism. Patients at higher risk of thromboembolization should stop warfarin therapy four to five days before surgery and start LMWH or unfractionated heparin two to three days before surgery.
ABSTRACT: Appropriately administered antibiotic prophylaxis reduces the incidence of surgical wound infection. Prophylaxis is uniformly recommended for all clean-contaminated, contaminated and dirty procedures. It is considered optional for most clean procedures, although it may be indicated for certain patients and clean procedures that fulfill specific risk criteria. Timing of antibiotic administration is critical to efficacy. The first dose should always be given before the procedure, preferably within 30 minutes before incision. Readministration at one to two half-lives of the antibiotic is recommended for the duration of the procedure. In general, postoperative administration is not recommended. Antibiotic selection is influenced by the organism most commonly causing wound infection in the specific procedure and by the relative costs of available agents. In certain gastrointestinal procedures, oral and intravenous administration of agents with activity against gram-negative and anaerobic bacteria is warranted, as well as mechanical preparation of the bowel. Cefazolin provides adequate coverage for most other types of procedures.
ABSTRACT: Factors associated with an increased risk of thromboembolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) include increasing age, rheumatic heart disease, poor left ventricular function, previous myocardial infarction, hypertension and a past history of a thromboembolic event. Patients with AF should be considered for anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy based on the patient's age, the presence of other risk factors for stroke and the risk of complications from anticoagulation. In general, patients with risk factors for stroke should receive warfarin anticoagulation, regardless of their age. In patients who are under age 65 and have no other risk factors for stroke, either aspirin therapy or no therapy at all is recommended. Aspirin or warfarin is recommended for use in patients between 65 and 75 years of age with no other risk factors, and warfarin is recommended for use in patients without risk factors who are older than 75 years of age.
ABSTRACT: Congenital heart defects are classified into two broad categories: acyanotic and cyanotic lesions. The most common acyanotic lesions are ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, atrioventricular canal, pulmonary stenosis, patent ductus arteriosus, aortic stenosis and coarctation of the aorta. Congestive heart failure is the primary concern in infants with acyanotic lesions. The most common cyanotic lesions are tetralogy of Fallot and transposition of the great arteries. In infants with cyanotic lesions, hypoxia is more of a problem than congestive heart failure. Suspicion of a congenital heart defect should be raised by the presence of feeding difficulties in association with tachypnea, sweating and subcostal recession, or severe growth impairment. Follow-up of infants with congenital heart disease should follow the schedule of routine care for healthy babies with some modifications, such as administration of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines. More frequent follow-up is required if congestive heart failure is present. Family psychosocial issues should also be addressed. One of the main roles for the family physician is to help the parents put the diagnosis in perspective by clarifying expectations and misconceptions, and answering specific questions.
ABSTRACT: Minor cytologic abnormalities of the cervix, such as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), are vastly more common than high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or invasive cancer. Current guidelines for the management of ASCUS include repeating the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear at specific intervals, referring all patients for colposcopy or using an adjunctive test such as hybrid capture human papillomavirus (HPV) testing or cervicography. The usefulness of the Pap smear is limited by its considerable false-negative rate and its dependence on clinician and laboratory performance. Colposcopy is a highly sensitive procedure, but many patients with ASCUS have normal colposcopic findings. The hybrid capture test not only measures quantitative HPV load but also detects both oncogenic and nononcogenic HPV types, thereby increasing the probability that serious cervical disease is not missed. Hybrid capture sampling is simple to perform, and positive results are strongly associated with cervical dysplasia. HPV testing in women with ASCUS can be used as an adjunctive test to identify those with HPV-associated disease; it can also serve as a quality assurance measure. Together, repeat Pap smears and HPV testing should identify most patients with underlying cervical dysplasia. Combined testing may also minimize the number of unnecessary colposcopic examinations in women who have no disease.
ABSTRACT: Neonatal group B streptococcal infection is the primary cause of neonatal morbidity related to infection. It can often be prevented by identifying and treating pregnant women who carry group B streptococci or who are at highest risk of transmitting the bacteria to newborns. Increasing evidence and expert opinion support intrapartum treatment of women at relatively high risk of delivering an infant with group B streptococcal infection. Such women can be identified through the use of an anogenital culture for group B streptococci obtained at 35 to 37 weeks of gestation and by the presence of at least one of many risk factors associated with neonatal infection. These risk factors include preterm labor or rupture of the membranes at less than 37 weeks of gestation, previous delivery of an infant with invasive group B streptococcal disease, group B streptococcal bacteriuria during the present pregnancy, maternal intrapartum fever of 38 degrees C (100.4 degrees F) or higher and rupture of the fetal membranes for 18 hours or more. The recommended agent for intrapartum chemoprophylaxis is intravenous penicillin G; clindamycin is used in penicillin-allergic women. The use of risk markers alone to guide the administration of intrapartum antibiotics is much more cost-effective than other preventive strategies, but it exposes more women and infants to antibiotic-associated risks. Management of the infants of treated mothers is empiric and is currently guided by expert opinion.
Preterm Labor - Article
ABSTRACT: Preterm labor is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality in the United States. It is characterized by cervical effacement and/or dilatation and increased uterine irritability before 37 weeks of gestation. Women with a history of preterm labor are at greatest risk. Strategies for reducing the incidence of preterm labor and delivery have focused on educating both physicians and patients about the risks for preterm labor and methods of detecting preterm cervical dilatation. Methods used to predict preterm labor include weekly cervical assessment, transvaginal ultrasonography, detection of fetal fibronectin and home uterine activity monitoring. As yet, it is unclear if any of these strategies should be routinely employed. At present, management of preterm labor may include the use of tocolytic agents, corticosteroids and antibiotics.