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ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus is a multisystem inflammatory disease that is often difficult to diagnose. Before the diagnosis can be established, four of 11 clinical and laboratory criteria must be met. Antinuclear antibody titer is the primary laboratory test used to diagnose systemic lupus erythematosus. Because of the low prevalence of the disease in primary care populations, the antinuclear antibody titer has a low predictive value in patients without typical clinical symptoms. Therefore, as specified by the American College of Rheumatology, this titer should be obtained only in patients with unexplained involvement of two or more organ systems. Patients with an antinuclear antibody titer of 1:40 and characteristic multiorgan system involvement can be diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus without additional testing; however, patients with an antibody titer of 1:40 who fail to meet full clinical criteria should undergo additional testing, including tests for antibody to double-stranded DNA antigen and antibody to Sm nuclear antigen. While an antinuclear antibody titer of less than 1:40 usually rules out systemic lupus erythematosus, patients with persistent, characteristic multisystem involvement may be evaluated for possible antinuclear antibody-negative disease.
Poliovirus Vaccine Options - Article
ABSTRACT: As a result of the success of immunization, indigenous wild poliomyelitis has disappeared from the United States. Of 142 confirmed cases of paralytic poliomyelitis reported in the United States from 1980 to 1996, 134 were classified as vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP). Persons with VAPP have a disabling illness, and this has caught the attention of the lay media. The risk of VAPP is one case per 750,000 doses distributed for the first dose of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) and one case per 2.4 million doses of OPV distributed overall. Because of this risk, most parents prefer a vaccine schedule that starts with inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), even though extra injections are required. IPV does not cause VAPP. New studies show that high immunization rates can be achieved in disadvantaged populations with a schedule starting with IPV. The American Academy of Family Physicians now recommends that the first two doses of poliovirus vaccine should be IPV; that is, either an all-IPV schedule or a sequential schedule of two doses of IPV followed by two doses of OPV. OPV is no longer recommended for the first two doses and is acceptable only under special circumstances, such as when parents do not accept the recommended number of injections.
ABSTRACT: The American Academy of Family Physicians now recommends that all persons 50 years of age and older receive an annual influenza vaccination, because the rates of morbidity and mortality associated with influenza are high and vaccination is cost-effective. Reasons for lowering the recommended age for routine vaccination from 65 to 50 years of age include reductions in office visits, hospitalizations, time taken off work and associated costs. In working adults 18 to 64 years of age, the cost savings were estimated at $46.85 per person vaccinated. Furthermore, the fatality rate from influenza begins to rise at age 45 and is highest in persons with multiple chronic medical conditions. As in the past, recommendations target persons at high risk for complications, such as those with cardiac disease, lung disease and diabetes, as well as health care workers and residents of nursing homes. Severe allergy to eggs is a contraindication to influenza vaccination.
ACOG Releases Guidelines on Management of Adnexal Masses - Practice Guidelines
ACP Updates Guideline on Diagnosis and Management of Stable COPD - Practice Guidelines
Predicting Rheumatoid Arthritis Risk in Adults with Undifferentiated Arthritis - Point-of-Care Guides
ACCF/AHA Update Peripheral Artery Disease Management Guideline - Practice Guidelines
AAP Reports on the Use of Antipyretics for Fever in Children - Practice Guidelines
Becoming an Effective Physician Leader - Feature